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Table 1 Characteristics of participants and factors associated with internal stigma score using bivariable negative binomial regression models (N = 604)

From: Determinants and effects or consequences of internal HIV-related stigma among people living with HIV in Morocco

  N(%) or median[IQR] IRR[95%CI] p-value
Sex
 Male 310 (51.3) 1  
 Female 294 (48.7) 1.05 [0.95;1.16] 0.308
Age (years) 36 [28–43] 0.998 [0.993;1.003] 0.346
Highest level of formal education completed
 No formal education 153 (25.3) 1.24 [1.04;1.47] 0.015
 Primary or secondary school 374 (61.9) 1.15 [0.98;1.35] 0.078
 Technical college or University 77 (12.8) 1  
Current employment status
 Full-time 141 (23.4) 1  
 Part-time 161 (26.8) 0.87 [0.76;1.01] 0.060
 Unemployed and not working at all 300 (49.8) 1.02 [0.90;1.15] 0.774
Lost a job*
 Never or once 198 (33.6) 1  
 A few times or often 91 (15.5) 1.34 [1.15;1.55] < 0.001
 Not applicable 300 (50.9) 1.22 [1.09;1.36] 0.001
Household income in MAD per month (per one thousand unit increase) 2000 [1000–3000] 0.976 [0.957;0.995] 0.013
Current relationship status
 Married or cohabiting 215 (35.8) 1  
 In a relationship but not living together 27 (4.5) 1.09 [0.85;1.39] 0.484
 Single, divorced or separated 302 (50.2) 1.13 [1.02;1.26] 0.023
 Widow or widower 57 (9.5) 1.01 [0.84;1.21] 0.947
Belongs to at least one key population
 No 400 (66.7) 1  
 Yes 200 (33.3) 1.20 [1.08;1.33] < 0.001
Number of years living with HIV 4 [2–7] 0.999 [0.989;1.010] 0.896
Reactions of other adult family members when they first knew about HIV status*
 Very discriminatory or discriminatory 96 (16.1) 1.41 [1.22;1.63] < 0.001
 No difference 95 (15.9) 1.14 [0.98;1.33] 0.094
 Very supportive or supportive 169 (28.4) 1  
 Not Applicable 236 (39.6) 1.07 [0.95;1.21] 0.283
Psychological pressure or manipulation by husband or wife or partner in which HIV-positive status was used*
 Never or once 495 (91.8) 1  
 A few times or often 44 (8.2) 1.43 [1.21;1.70] < 0.001
Avoiding HIV prevention / testing / treatment services for fear of stigmatization by staff
 No 364 (63.9) 1  
 Yes 206 (36.1) 1.21 [1.10;1.34] < 0.001
Denied health services (including dental care) because of HIV status*
 No 238 (39.7) 1  
 Yes 171 (28.6) 1.35 [1.20;1.51] < 0.001
 Not applicable 190 (31.7) 1.0 [0.96;1.21] 0.216
Confronted, challenged or educated someone who was stigmatizing and/or discriminating *†
No 364 (60.8) 1  
Yes 235 (39.2) 1.28 [1.16;1.41] < 0.001
General perceived health status (current)
 Excellent or very good or good 297 (49.7) 1  
 Fair or poor 300 (50.3) 1.33 [1.21;1.47] < 0.001
  1. *In the last 12 months; † stigma and discrimination against the participant