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Table 3 Factors associated with dental caries experience (D4MFT ≥ 1)a among adults in Butajira HDSS, South-central Ethiopia

From: Dental caries experience and associated factors in adults: a cross-sectional community survey within Ethiopia

Explanatory Variables Unadjusted Model Adjusted Model
PRf 95% CI PRf 95% CI
Age group 18–24 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
25–34 1.53** 1.11–2.10 1.28 0.95–1.71
35–44 2.59*** 1.92–3.48 1.76*** 1.31–2.39
45–54 2.64*** 1.95–3.56 1.80*** 1.33–2.43
55–64 2.95*** 2.21–3.95 1.75*** 1.29–2.38
65+ 3.18*** 2.39–4.22 2.02*** 1.50–2.74
Sex Female 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Male 1.01 0.89–1.15 1.09 0.94–1.25
Educational status No formal education 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Primary school 0.62*** 0.54–0.72 0.76*** 0.66–0.89
Secondary school 0.42*** 0.32–0.56 0.59*** 0.44–0.80
Higher education 0.40*** 0.27–0.60 0.55** 0.37–0.82
Location Urban 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Rural 1.27*** 1.12–1.45 0.97 0.85–1.10
Utilisation of dental care services Never 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Ever 1.68*** 1.51–1.87 1.51*** 1.36–1.68
Frequency of tooth cleaning Never/ Rarely 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Less than once a day 0.74*** 0.63–0.87 1.01 0.78–2.60
Once a day 0.61*** 0.49–0.76 0.93 0.70–2.26
Twice or more per day 0.87 0.73–1.04 1.11 0.86–1.44
Tooth cleaning material Toothbrush 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Mefakiyab / Chewstick 1.32* 1.16–2.79 0.97 0.70–1.36
Wooden toothpicks 1.37** 1.21–3.31 0.94 0.66–1.33
Other 1.46* 0.95–6.02 1.05 0.69–1.61
Use of toothpaste Yes 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
No 1.52*** 1.22–1.89 0.92 0.63–1.34
Frequency of Khat chewing Never 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Less than weekly 1.28** 1.08–3.12 0.96 0.80–1.15
More than once a week 1.33*** 1.30–3.31 1.16 0.98–1.36
Every day/nearly every day 1.52*** 2.01–6.30 1.38*** 1.15–1.64
Level of sugar consumption risk Higherc 1 [Reference] 1 [Reference]
Moderated 0.99 0.76–1.28 0.95 0.75–1.20
Lowere 1.29* 1.02–1.65 1.12 0.90–1.40
  1. aDT: ICDAS 4 and above, bMefakiya: an Amharic name for chewstick, cMore than once a week, dBetween once a month and once a week, eRarely or never, fPoisson regression models with robust standard error were fitted, and prevalence ratios (PR) were reported
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001