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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of dental caries experience and consequences of untreated dental caries (D4MFT ≥ 1)a with relevant health behavioural factors of adults in Butajira HDSS, south-central Ethiopia

From: Dental caries experience and associated factors in adults: a cross-sectional community survey within Ethiopia

Factors Total DT ≥ 1 MT ≥ 1 DMFT ≥ 1 Pain/Discomfort PUFA ≥ 1
n % n % p-value n % p-value n % p-value n % p-value n % p-value
Utilisation of dental care services Never 463 74.0 212 45.8 0.001 100 21.6 0.001 237 51.2 0.001 66 14.3 0.012 26 5.6 0.010
Ever 163 26.0 120 73.6   88 54.0   140 85.9   37 22.7   19 11.7  
Frequency of tooth cleaning Never/ Rarely 65 10.4 48 73.9 0.001 27 41.5 0.007 51 78.5 0.001 9 13.9 0.001 2 3.1 0.001
Less than once a day 305 48.7 156 51.2   79 25.9   178 58.4   50 16.4   15 4.9  
Once a day 135 21.6 53 39.3   35 25.9   65 48.2   15 11.1   8 5.9  
Twice or more per day 121 19.3 75 62.0   47 38.8   83 68.6   83 68.6   20 16.5  
Tooth cleaning material Mefakiya b / Chewstick 281 44.9 150 53.4 0.001 87 31.0 0.004 169 60.1 0.001 53 18.9 0.288 20 7.1 0.006
Wooden toothpicks 142 22.7 75 52.8   45 31.7   89 62.7   22 15.5   7 4.9  
Toothbrush 114 18.2 44 38.6   19 16.7   52 45.6   13 11.4   10 3.1  
Other 24 3.8 15 62.5   10 41.7   16 66.7   6 25.0   6 7.1  
Do not clean 65 10.4 48 73.9   27 41.5   51 78.5   9 13.8   2 4.9  
Use of toothpaste Yes 118 18.9 42 35.6 0.001 17 14.4 0.001 50 42.4 0.001 14 11.9 0.260 8 8.8 0.374
No 443 70.8 242 54.6   144 32.5   276 62.3   80 18.1   35 25.0  
Do not clean 65 10.4 48 73.9   27 41.5   51 78.5   9 13.8   2 3.1  
Frequency of Khat chewing Never Chew 370 59.1 164 44.3 0.001 90 24.3 0.003 193 52.2 0.001 54 14.6 0.484 23 6.2 0.519
Less than a week 72 11.5 43 59.7   26 36.1   48 66.7   13 18.1   8 11.1  
More than once a week 101 16.1 64 63.4   40 39.6   70 69.3   19 18.8   8 7.9  
Every day or nearly every day 83 13.3 61 73.5   32 38.6   66 79.5   17 20.5   6 7.2  
Level of sugar consumption risk Higherc 67 10.7 31 46.3 0.004 13 19.4 0.017 35 52.2 0.001 9 2.0 0.733 4 0.1 0.438
Moderated 223 35.6 102 45.7   59 26.5   115 51.6   36 0.4   20 20.0  
Lowere 336 53.7 199 59.2   116 34.5   227 67.6   58 68.2   21 24.7  
Toothache or discomfort (in past 12 months) Often 44 7.0 37 84.1 0.001 24 54.6 0.001 38 86.4 0.001 22 0.5 0.001 12 27.3 0.001
Occasionally 133 21.3 104 78.2   58 43.6   113 85.0   50 37.6   14 10.5  
Rarely 97 15.5 66 68.0   35 36.1   75 77.3   14 14.4   4 4.1  
Never 352 56.2 125 35.5   71 20.2   151 42.9   16 4.6   14 4.1  
  1. aDT: ICDAS 4 and above, bMefakiya: an Amharic name for chew-stick, cMore than once a week, dBetween once a month and once a week, eRarely or never