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Table 2 Associated factors of death among pedestrians involved in a traffic crashes in Benin. 2008–2015: Univariate and multivariate analysis

From: “My right to walk, my right to live”: pedestrian fatalities, roads and environmental features in Benin

Variables Number of crashes (N) Number of crashes with death of a pedestrian (n) Percentage (%) OR brut 95%CI p-value AOR 95%CI p-value
Environmental factors
Area 3760      0.000    0.000
  Urban 2639 441 16.71 1.00    1.00   
  Rural 1121 602 53.70 5.78 4.95–6.76   4.94 4.10–5.94  
Type of day 3681      0.005    
  Regular working day 2576 665 25.82 1.00    1.00   
  Weekend 865 250 28.90 1.17 0.98–1.39   1.17 0.96–1.43 0.119
  Public holiday 96 37 38.54 1.80 1.18–2.74   2.17 1.34–3.52 0.020
  Market day 144 58 40.28 1.94 1.37–2.74   1.55 1.04–2.31 0.031
Atmospheric conditions 3751      0.002    
  Normal 3599 982 27.29 1.00      
  Abnormal 152 54 35.53 1.47 1.05–2.06     
Light levels 3760      0.013    
  During day 2674 715 26.74 1.00    1.00   
  At night with public lighting 282 72 25.53 0.98 0.71–1.24   1.32 0.94–1.85 0.109
  At night without public lighting 804 256 31.84 1.28 1.08–1.52   1.30 1.06–1.59 0.012
Characteristics of the road infrastructure
Road classification 3760      0.000    
  National and urban roads 1588 267 16.81 1.00    1.00   
  Unclassified paths and trails 273 90 32.97 2.43 1.83–3.23   1.25 0.85–1.82 0.260
  Inter-country national roads - RNIE 1899 686 36.12 2.80 2.38–3.29   1.79 1.46–2.20 0.000
Traffic crashes at an intersection 3757      0.000    
  Yes 592 105 17.74   1.00     
  No 3165 935 29.54 1.95 1.55–2.43     
Road profil 3757      0.000    
  Flat 3580 970 27.09   1.00     
  Incline or elevation 177 71 40.11 1.80 1.32–2.46     
Traffic crashes on a bend or curve 3760      0.012    
  No 3428 931 27.16       
  Yes 332 112 33.73 1.37 1.07–1.74     
Type and state of road surfacing 3757      0.000    
  Cobblestones in good condition 604 68 11.26 1.00    1.00   
  Asphalt in good condition 2544 757 29.76 3.34 2.56–4.36   1.29 0.93–1.79 0.134
  Damaged condition 609 216 35.47 4.33 3.20–5.86   2.04 1.41–2.95 0.000
Presence of safety traffic barriers on the ground 3742      0.000    0.019
  Yes 1238 419 33.84 1.00    1.00   
  No 2504 617 24.64 0.64 0.55–0.74   0.80 0.66–0.96  
Characteristics of the collision
Type of vehicle involved 3733      0.000    
  Motorized with two wheels 1145 234 20.44 1.00      
  Light four-wheeled vehicle 2157 608 28.19 1.53 1.29–1.81     
  Truck 431 190 44.08 3.07 2.42–3.90     
Position of the pedestrian during the collision 3437      0.000    
  Crossing an intersection 645 132 20.47 1.00      
  Crossing away from an intersection 397 79 19.90 0.96 0.71–1.32   1.00   
  Road and surrounding areas 1680 474 28.21 1.53 1.23–1.90   1.69 1.19–2.38 0.003
  Pedestrian outside of the primary collision 715 242 33.85 1.99 1.55–2.54   1.91 1.49–2.44 0.000
  1. *p value HL: 0.4171