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Table 2 Trends of diarrhea prevalence among under-five children by selected characteristics in Ethiopia

From: Trends and determinants of diarrhea among under-five children in Ethiopia: cross-sectional study: multivariate decomposition and multilevel analysis based on Bayesian approach evidenced by EDHS 2000–2016 data

    Point difference in diarrhea prevalence
Variables Characteristics 2000
N = 10,753
2005
N = 10,039
2011
N = 10,946
2016
N = 10,337
Phase1
(2005–2000)
Phase2
(2011–2005)
Phase3
2016–2011
Over all
(2016–2000)
Sex of child Male 26.3 18.1 14.4 12.2 −8.2 −4.1 −2.2 −14.1
Female 24.9 18.1 12.6 11.5 −6.8 −5.5 −1.1 −13.4
Twin Yes 19.3 14.8 23.6 13.8 −4.5 4.3 −5.5 −7.5
No 25.7 18.2 13.4 11.8 −7.5 −4.8 −1.6 −13.9
Weight of child at birth Small 26.3 20 14.9 15.7 −6.3 −5.9 0.8 −10.6
Average 23.3 15.5 12.6 9.8 −7.8 −2.9 −2.8 −13.5
Big 27.5 19.8 13.5 11.6 −7.7 −6.3 −1.9 − 15.9
Birth order First 27.2 17.5 11.2 13.1 −9.7 −6.3 1.9 −14.1
2–3 26.6 16.7 13.4 12.4 −9.9 −3.3 −1 14.2
4–5 25.4 20.9 14.7 12 −4.5 −6.2 −2.7 −13.4
= > 6 23.8 17.8 14.4 10.4 −6 −3.4 −4 −13.4
Birth interval = < 23 month 25.2 17.6 10.4 9.9 −7.6 −7.2 −0.5 −15.3
= > 24 month 24.9 18.4 14.3 11.6 −6.5 −4.1 −2.7 −13.3
Age of child < 1 year 27.3 21.3 17.2 14.7 −6 −4.1 −2.5 −12.6
= > 1 < 2 year 37.2 28.4 22.8 17.8 −8.8 −5.6 −5 −19.4
= > 2 < 3 year 28.7 18.6 14.1 13 −10.1 − 4.5 − 1.1 − 15.7
= > 3 < 4 year 19.2 12.6 9 9.2 −6.6 −3.6 0.2 −10
= > 4 < 5 year 15.7 10.2 6 4.8 −5.5 −4.2 −1.2 − 10.9
Breast feeding Still feeding 31.2 23.2 18.4 12 −8 −4.8 −6.4 −19.2
Ever feed but not now 20 12.7 9.1 11.9 −7.3 −3.6 2.8 −8.1
Never feed 36.2 19.1 13.5 10.3 −17.1 −5.6 −3.2 − 25.9
Rotavirus vaccine Vaccinated 12.5
Not vaccinated 11.6
Measles’ vaccine Vaccinated 22.6 20 14 13.2 −2.6 −6 −0.8 −9.4
Not vaccinated 26.7 17.7 13.3 18.2 −9 −4.4 4.9 −8.5
Vitamin A supplemented Yes 24.9 19.4 13.6 12.8 −5.5 − 5.8 −0.8 − 12.1
No 25.5 17.3 13.3 11.4 −8.2 −4 −1.9 − 14.1
Mothers work status had work 26.7 18.5 13.2 11.3 −8.2 −5.3 −1.9 − 15.4
had no work 24.8 18 14.1 13.3 −6.8 −3.9 −0.8 −11.5
Wealth index Poor 19.1 13.8 12.6 −5.3 −1.2
Medium 19.8 13.2 12.5 −6.6 −0.7
Rich 15.9 13.5 12.6 −2.4 −0.9
Health insurance Yes 10.3 10.8 0.5
No 13.6 11.9 −1.7
Distance to health facility Not long 16.3 12.1 12.6 −4.2 0.5
Long 18.7 14 11.4 −4.7 −2.6
Continuation of above table
Variables Characteristics Point difference in diarrhea prevalence
2000
N = 10,753
2005
N = 10,039
2011
N = 10,946
2016
N = 10,337
Phase1
(2005–2000)
Phase2
(2011–2005)
Phase3
2016–2011
Over all
(2016–2000)
Residence Urban 21.1 12.3 11.2 10.9 −8.8 −1.1 −0.3 − 10.2
Rural 26.2 18.6 13.9 12 −7.6 −4.7 −1.9 − 14.2
Region Tigray 17.9 12.9 13.4 13 −5 0.5 −0.4 −4.9
Afar 20.6 13.5 12.7 11.5 −7.1 −0.8 −1.2 −9.1
Amhara 20.3 14.7 13.7 13.8 −5.6 −1 0.1 −6.5
Oromia 27.2 17.8 11.5 10.7 −9.4 −6.3 −0.8 −16.5
Somali 22.8 12.4 20 6.1 −10.4 7.6 −13.9 − 16.7
B/Gumuz 26.9 21.3 23.2 8.8 −5.6 1.9 −14.4 − 18.1
SNNP 32.5 25.2 16.5 14 −7.3 −8.7 −2.5 −18.5
Gambella 32 14.3 22.9 16 −17.7 8.6 −6.9 −16
Harari 26.1 19 11.5 12.5 −7.1 − 7.5 1 −13.6
Addis Ababa 16.8 13.6 9.6 7.7 −3.2 −4 −1.6 −9.1
Dire-Dawa 25.7 11.8 8.3 11.6 −13.9 −3.5 3.3 −14.1
Mother’s educational level No formal education 26.2 18.3 14 11.3 −7.9 −4.3 −2.7 −14.9
Primary 24.1 19.5 12.8 13.3 −4.6 −6.7 0.5 −10.8
Secondary 19.4 10.7 10.6 14.7 −8.7 −0.1 4.1 −4.7
Higher 41.7 2.4 11.3 7.3 −39.3 8.9 −4 −34.4
Father’s educational level No formal education 25 18.2 13.7 10.5 −6.8 −4.5 −3.2 −14.5
Primary 29.1 19.2 14 13.4 −9.9 −5.2 −0.6 −15.7
Secondary 20.8 14.7 11.6 12.8 −6.1 −3.1 1.2 −8
Higher 22.1 6.3 10.6 10 −15.8 4.3 −0.6 −12.1
Sex of household head Male 25.7 18.2 13.4 12.2 −7.5 −4.8 −1.2 −13.5
Female 24.9 17.3 14.2 9.9 −7.6 −3.1 −4.3 −15
Media exposure Yes 24.3 16.1 13.4 14 −8.2 −2.7 0.6 10.3
No 25.7 18.4 13.6 11.4 −7.3 −4.8 −2.2 −14.3
family members = < 5 27.9 18.1 13.7 10.5 −9.8 −4.4 −3.2 −17.4
= > 6 23.9 18 13.4 13.6 −5.9 −4.6 0.2 −10.3
Number of U-5 children = < 2 25.8 18.9 13.6 12.6 −6.9 −5.3 −1 −13.2
= > 3 24.4 18 13.5 8.4 −6.4 −10.9 −5.1 − 16
Drinking water Improved 25.1 16.6 12.6 12 −8.5 −4 −0.6 − 13.1
Not improved 25.7 19.9 14.6 11.4 −5.8 −5.3 −3.2 −14.3
Child waste disposal Safe 24.3 19.4 14.2 14.6 −4.9 −5.2 0.4 −9.3
Not safe 25.8 17.9 13.7 10.8 −7.9 −4.2 −2.9 −15
Type of toilet Improved 23.6 20.7 12 9.8 − 2.9 −8.7 − 2.2 −13.8
Not improved 25.9 17.9 13.8 11.6 −8 −4.1 −2.2 −14.3