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Table 1 Frequency and Percentage distribution of characteristics of respondents and their children in Ethiopia

From: Trends and determinants of diarrhea among under-five children in Ethiopia: cross-sectional study: multivariate decomposition and multilevel analysis based on Bayesian approach evidenced by EDHS 2000–2016 data

Variables Characteristics Frequency and percentage distribution of characteristics
EDHS 2000
No (%)
EDHS 2005
No (%)
EDHS 2011
No (%)
EDHS 2016
No (%)
Sex of child Male 5460(51) 5089 (51) 5636(51.5) 5307(51)
Female 5293(49) 4950 (49) 5310 (48.5) 5030(49)
Twin Yes 136 (1) 143 (1.4) 203(1.9) 292 (2.2)
No 10,617(99) 19,896(98.6) 10,743(98.1) 10,105 (97.8)
Weight of child at birth Small 3651 (34) 2805 (28) 3251(29.7) 2676 (26.1)
Average 388 (36) 4069 (40.1) 4275 (39.1) 4328 (42.2)
Big 3200(30) 3149 (31.4) 3406 (31.2 3255 (31.7)
Birth order First 1982 (19) 1666 (16.6) 2068 (18.9) 1923 (18.6)
2–3 3264(30) 3069 (30.6) 3422 (31.3) 3155 (30.5)
4–5 2362 (22) 2382 (23.7) 2522 [23] 2473 (23.9)
= > 6 3144(29) 2920 (29.2) 2935 (26.8) 2786 (27)
Birth interval = < 23 month 2215 (23) 3420 (34) 2407 (25) 2446 (27.3)
  = > 24 month 7951(77) 6618 (66) 7221 (75) 6499 (72.7)
Age of child < 1 year 2186(20.3) 222 (22) 2383 (21.8) 2264 (21.9)
= > 1 < 2 year 2145 (20) 1872 (18.7) 1915 (17.5) 2001 (19.4)
= > 2 < 3 year 2084(19.4) 1883 (18.8) 2045 (18.7) 1926(18.6)
= > 3 < 4 year 2260 (21) 2078(20.7) 2351 (21.5) 1980 (19.1)
= > 4 <  5 year 2080(19.3) 1984 (19.8) 2251 (20.6) 2165 (21)
Breast feeding Still feeding 5318 (49.5) 5111(51.2) 5253 (45) 4325 (42)
Ever feed but not now 5366 (50) 4699 (47) 5532 (50.5) 5624 (54.4)
  Never feed 69 (0.64) 178 (4.1) 161 (1.5) 388 (3.8)
Rotavirus vaccine vaccinated 2858 (27.7)
Not vaccinated 7479 (72.4)
Measles’ vaccine Vaccinated 2894 (26.9) 2535 (26.9) 5053 (47.1) 3692 (60.2)
Not vaccinated 7859 (73.1) 6877(73.1) 5682(52.9) 2446(39.8)
Vitamin A supplemented Yes 6000(56.5) 4399(44.5) 5274 (48.8) 4574 (48.7)
No 4624(43.5) 5492 (55.5) 5540 (51.2) 4825 (51.3)
Wealth index Poor 4312(35) 4889 (44.7) 4848(46.9)
Medium 2197 (22) 2259 (20.6) 2139 (20.7)
Rich 3529 (35) 3798 (34.7) 3350 (32.4)
Mothers work status Had work 6003 (55.9) 8572 (76.8) 3733 (34.1) 2803 (27.1)
had no working 4745(44.1) 2590 (23.2) 4061 (68.9) 7534 (72.9)
Health insurance Yes 59 (0.5) 378 (3.7)
No 10,882(99.4) 9959 (96.3)
Distance to health facility Not long 2553 (25.4) 2710(24.8) 4056 (39.2)
Long 7485 (74.6) 8227 (75.2) 6281 (60.8)
Continuation of above table
Variables Characteristics Frequency and percentage distribution of characteristics
EDHS 2000
No (%)
EDHS 2005
No (%)
EDHS 2011
No (%)
EDHS 2016
No (%)
Residence Urban 1141(10.6) 741(7.4) 1413(12.9) 1151 (11.1)
Rural 9612(89.4) 2298(92.6) 9534(87.1) 9186 (88.9)
Region Tigray 709 (6.6) 652 (6.5) 701 (6.3) 682 (6.6)
Afar 107 (1) 96 (1) 110 (1) 104 (1)
Amhara 2797 (26) 2299 (22.9) 2472 (22.6) 1954 (18.9)
Oromia 4356 (40.5) 3982 (39.7) 4615(42.2) 4537 (43.9)
Somali 127(1.2) 428 (4.3) 330 (3) 472 (4.6)
B/Gumuz 108 (1) 95 (0.9) 125(1) 113 (1.1)
SNNP 2297 (21.4) 2265 (22.6) 2287 (20.9) 2149 (20.8)
Gambella 25(0.23) 28 (0.3) 35 (0.3) 24 (0.2)
Harari 23 (0.2) 21 (0.2) 26 (0.2) 24 (0.2)
Addis Ababa 167 (1.6) 140 (1.4) 208 (1.9) 233 (2.3)
Dire-Dawa 35 (0.3) 34 (0.3) 36 (0.3) 43(0.4)
Mother’s educational level No formal education 8771 (82) 7896(78.7) 7562 (69.1) 6809 (65.9)
Primary 1426 (13) 1699 (16.9) 2980 (27.2) 2777(26.9)
Secondary 532 (4.9) 401 (4) 245(2.2) 491 (4.8)
Higher 24 (0.2) 42 (0.4) 159(1.5) 260 (2.5)
Father’s educational level No formal education 6732 (63.5) 5771(58.1) 5360 (49.7) 4700 (48.2)
Primary 2682 (25.3) 3054 (30.8) 4527(42) 3849 (39.5)
Secondary 1054 (10) 1000 (10.1) 550(5.1) 766 (7.9)
Higher 140 (1.3) 111 (1.1) 348 (3.2) 442 (4.5)
Sex of household head Male 9327(86.7) 8957 (89.2) 9323 (85.2) 8908 (86.2)
Female 1426(13.3) 1082(10.8) 1623 (14.8) 1429 (13.8)
Media exposure Yes 893(8.3) 1222 (12.2) 2007(18.4) 1846 (17.9)
No 9849(91.7) 8799 (87.8) 8927(81.6) 8491 (82.1)
Family members = <  5 4655 (43.3) 4116 (41) 4812(44) 5865 (56.7)
= > 6 6098 (56.7) 5922 (59) 6134 (56) 4472 (43.3)
Number of U-5 children = < 2 9169 (85.3) 5922 (83.2) 9041 (82.6) 8541 (82.6)
= > 3 1584 (14.7) 1685 (16.8) 1906 (17.4) 1796 (17.4)
drinking water Improved 2224(21.4) 5289(55.4) 4951 (46.5) 5719 (56.2)
Not improved 8169(78.6) 4254(44.6) 5686 (53.5) 4464 (43.8)
Child waste disposal Safe 2457 (23) 1987 (20) 3647(36.2) 2553 (38.8)
Not safe 8256 (77) 7945 (80) 6419 (63.8) 4035 (61.2)
Type of toilet Improved 1494(14.4) 891(9) 1342(12.6) 1036 (21.4)
Not improved 8903(85.6) 9073(91) 9287 (87.4) 3804 (78.6)