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Table 1 Distribution of background characteristics and status of barriers in health care access among currently married women age 15–49 year

From: Empowerment and health care access barriers among currently married women in Myanmar

Background characteristics Total = 7759 Barriers in health care access Chi-square p-value
No barrier
3780 (48.0%)
1 barrier
1725 (21.9%)
> 1 barrier
2364 (30.1%)
Women’s empowerment
 Low 2278(33.4) 1054 (46.3) 494(21.7) 729(32.0) 70.9 < 0.001
 Medium 2928(42.9) 1532(51.6) 704(23.7) 734(24.7)
 High 1620(23.7) 848(57.3) 250(16.9) 383(25.8)
Age
 15–19 227(2.9) 104(46.0) 46(20.0) 77(34.0) 12.9 0.17
 20–29 2092(26.7) 1016(48.5) 491(23.5) 585(28.0)
 30–39 2988(38.8) 1526(51.1) 629(21.0) 832(27.9)
 40–49 2452(31.6) 1274(51.9) 495(20.2) 685(27.9)
Residence
 Urban 2022(26.1) 1256 (62.1) 461 (22.8) 305 (15.1) 242.8 < 0.001
 Rural 5737(73.9) 2665 (46.5) 1200(20.9) 1872 (32.6)
Education
 None 1193(15.4) 433(36.3) 231(19.4) 529(44.3) 485.9 < 0.001
 Primary 3656(47.1) 1681(46.0) 811(22.3) 518(22.7)
 Secondary 2285(29.4) 1329(58.2) 518(22.7) 438(19.1)
 Higher 625(8.1) 477(76.7) 101(16.1) 45(7.2)
Occupation
 Not working 2280(29.4) 1178(51.7) 514(22.5) 58(25.8) 8.9 0.09
 Working 5479(70.6) 2745(50.1) 1144(20.9) 1590(29.0)
Wealth Index
 Poorest 1622(20.9) 463(28.5) 342(21.1) 817(50.4) 974.2 < 0.001
 Poorer 1586(20.4) 644(40.6) 376(23.7) 566(35.7)
 Middle 1555(20.1) 811(52.1) 342(21.9) 402(26.0)
 Richer 1509(19.5) 917(60.8) 331(21.9) 261(17.3)
 Richest 1487(19.1) 1086(73.0) 270(18.2) 131(8.8)
Husband’s occupation
 White collar 715(9.2) 486(68.0) 130 (18.3) 99 (13.7) 101.0 < 0.001
 Blue collar 7044 (90.8) 3459 (49.1) 1507(21.4) 2078 (29.5)
Husband’s education
 None 1173(15.1) 467(39.8) 202 (17.2) 504 (43.0) 403.9 < 0.001
 Primary 3128(40.3) 1395 (44.6) 723 (23.1) 1010 (32.3)
 Secondary 2941(37.9) 1662(56.5) 662 (22.5) 617(21.0)
 Higher 517(6.7) 402 (77.6) 77 (14.9) 38 (7.5)
No. of living children
 No child 916(11.8) 496(54.2) 204 (22.2) 217 (23.6) 82.5 < 0.001
 1–3 5437(70.1) 2825(52.0) 1178 (21.6) 1433 (26.4)
 4 and more 1406(18.2) 699 (42.6) 279 (19.8) 528 (37.6)
Inter marital age difference
 Same age 818 (10.5) 430(52.6) 177 (21.7) 211(25.8) 7.3 0.27
 Husband>wife 5274(68.0) 2616 (49.6) 1139 (21.6) 1519 (28.8)
 Wife>husband 1667(21.5) 877 (52.6) 343 (20.6) 447 (26.8)
Family structure
 Nuclear 3942(50.8) 1812(46.0) 868 (22.0) 1263 (32.0) 79.9 < 0.001
 Extended 3817 (49.2) 2186 (55.2) 791(20.8) 911 (24.0)