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Table 1 Definition of political exposure variables

From: Linking political exposures to child and maternal health outcomes: a realist review

Exposure variable


Welfare state

if the analysis included welfare regimes or welfare state

indicators (e.g. universal health coverage), but not measures of political ideology (e.g. along

the left-right dimension)

Political tradition

if the study included variables referring to the left-right political dimension

(e.g. social democratic / egalitarian/ left vs. liberal / conservative / right political parties in



if the hypotheses tested involved democratic institutions or political rights


if the article examined how high, middle, and/or low income countries are integrated

through global networks of trade, foreign investment, and multinational corporations

  1. Adapted from Barnish et al. (2018), Table 1. Copyright: Max Barnish, Michelle Tørnes and Becky Nelson-Horne – used by permission