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Table 3 Associations between body image discrepancy and health risk behaviors

From: Body image perception, smoking, alcohol use, indoor tanning, and disordered eating in young and middle-aged adults: findings from a large population-based Swedish study

  All Women Men
n (%)    n (%)    n (%)   
Body image discrepancy No major body image discrepancy χ2 OR (95% CI) Body image discrepancy No major body image discrepancy χ2 OR (95% CI) Body image discrepancy No major body image discrepancy χ2 OR (95% CI)
Sex    0.144          
 Men 697 (5.6) 11,675 (94.4)   1.02 (0.92–1.13)         
 Women 986 (5.5) 16,838 (94.5)           
Ever smoked > 6 months    84.933     45.273     40.433  
 Yes 863 (7.0) 11,397 (93.0)   1.59 (1.44–1.75) 516 (6.9) 6991 (93.1)   1.55 (1.37–1.77) 347 (7.3) 4406 (92.7)   1.64 (1.41–1.91)
 No 811 (4.6) 16,981 (95.4)    464 (4.5) 9763 (95.5)    347 (4.6) 7218 (95.4)   
Current smoker    37.261     26.474     11.244  
 Yes 203 (8.3) 3420 (92.6)   1.60 (1.38–1.87) 130 (8.4) 1426 (91.6)   1.65 (1.36–2.00) 73 (8.1) 826 (91.9)   1.54 (1.19–1.98)
 No 1468 (5.3) 26,115 (94.7)    847 (5.2) 15,323 (94.8)    621 (5.4) 10,792 (94.6)   
Alcohol last 12 months    73.933     58.139     17.661  
 Yes 1415 (5.2) 25,841 (94.8)   0.54 (0.47–0.63) 799 (5.0) 15,034 (95.0)   0.52 (0.44–0.62) 616 (5.4) 10,807 (94.6)   0.59 (0.46–0.76)
 No 250 (9.1) 2485 (90.9)    173 (9.3) 1686 (90.7)    77 (8.8) 799 (91.2)   
Hazardous drinking    1.949     3.407     0.023  
 Yes 467 (5.9) 7493 (94.1)   1.08 (0.97–1.21) 185 (6.2) 2786 (93.8)   1.17 (0.99–1.38) 282 (5.7) 4707 (94.3)   1.01 (0.87–1.18)
 No 1210 (5.4) 20,996 (94.6)    798 (5.4) 14,036 (94.6)    412 (5.6) 6960 (94.4)   
Sunbed use    7.150     1.992     5.994  
 Yes 939 (5.3) 16,682 (94.7)   0.87 (0.79–0.97) 658 (5.4) 11,580 (94.6)   0.91 (0.79–1.04) 281 (5.1) 5282 (94.9)   0.82 (0.70–0.96)
 No 735 (6.0) 11,526 (94.0)    325 (5.9) 5183 (94.1)    410 (6.1) 6343 (93.9)   
Sunbed use > 10 times    0.495     0.000     2.044  
 Yes 554 (5.7) 9160 (94.3)   1.04 (0.94–1.15) 405 (5.5) 6911 (94.5)   1.00 (0.88–1.14) 149 (6.2) 2249 (93.8)   1.15 (0.95–1.38)
 No 1120 (5.5) 19,228 (94.5)    578 (5.5) 9852 (94.5)    542 (5.5) 9376 (94.5)   
Compensatory vomiting    37.306     8.012     46.528  
 Yes 48 (12.7) 329 (87.3)   2.52 (1.85–3.42) 25 (9.5) 239 (90.5)   1.81 (1.19–2.75) 23 (20.4) 90 (79.6)   4.40 (2.76–7.00)
 No 1621 (5.5) 27,989 (94.5)    953 (5.5) 16,498 (94.5)    668 (5.5) 11,491 (94.5)   
Loss-of-control eating    1320.324     876.967     460.122  
 Yes 513 (22.2) 1796 (77.8)   6.60 (5.85–7.36) 356 (21.3) 1316 (78.7)   6.69 (5.80–7.71) 157 (24.6) 480 (75.4)   6.84 (5.60–8.35)
 No 1153 (4.2) 26,477 (95.8)    622 (3.9) 15,376 (96.1)    531 (4.6) 11,101 (95.4)   
Food dominates life    615.559     452.688     168.367  
 Yes 307 (19.4) 1273 (80.6)   4.82 (4.21–5.53) 221 (19.4) 920 (80.6)   5.06 (4.29–5.96) 86 (19.6) 353 (80.4)   4.55 (3.54–5.84)
 No 1347 (4.8) 26,942 (95.2)    748 (4.5) 15,757 (95.5)    599 (5.1) 11,185 (94.9)   
  1. Significant findings (i.e., the 95% confidence interval (CI) does not overlap 1) are marked in bold. OR Odds ratio