Skip to main content

Table 3 international approaches implementing in other countries or territory

From: Barriers of effective health insurance coverage for rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: a systematic review and policy gap analysis

  USA Kerala, India Thailand Australia European Union
Objectives Migratory and seasonal agricultural workers (MSAW) Migrant workers Migrant workers Seasonal migrant workers Migrant workers in the EU
Eligible conditions NA Has a work-related proof Documented or undocumented NA
What they do. The federal Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), through the Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC), administers approximately $5.1 billion in federal grant support to over 1400 community health centers through 10,000 clinic sites in all 50 states and territories Awaz Health Insurance Scheme: provides health insurance and accidental death coverage for migrant workers living in the state. 1. In 2001 the Tai Ministry of Public Health set up the migrant health insurance scheme for all migrants who are not covered by social health insurance.2. A second strand of policy action on migrant health was the establishment by the public health ministry in 2003 of innovative, migrant-friendly services with the aim of improving access to health care for all migrants, whether covered by insurance or not. These included the use of volunteer community health workers, mobile clinics for migrant communities, bilingual (mostly Tai and Burmese) signposts and information in health facilities, and outreach services in the workplace 1. Medicare covers all Australian citizens, permanent residents and citizens of New Zealand for free.2. External migrant workers: Health insurance is bundled with Visa application 1. By launching the Regulation (EC) No 883/2004, and Regulation (EC) No 987/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, coordinates the social security systems between European members from a legal level.2. Promote the use of European Health Insurance Card (EHIC)
Is it a separated insurance? Yes Yes Citizens: No;
External migrant workers: NA
Mandatory or voluntary Voluntary Voluntary
Who pays for the eligibility NA Migrant worker, almost 455 RMB in 2015 1. Citizens: free
2. External migrant workers: self
Fee for the services Migrant Health Centers receive funding under Section 330(g) of the Public Health Service Act and provides services regardless of their ability to pay. Individuals without health insurance will be able to pay for services based on a sliding-fee scale, and payment is based on income and household size. Free with Awaz insurance card CD 1. Citizens: free
2. External migrant workers: NA
Management agency National Association of Community Health Centers (NACHC) supports health centers caring for the MSAW population at both the program and policy levels. NACHC has a Committee on Agricultural Worker Health, which is composed of approximately 30 NACHC members who represent health centers that serve the MSAW population. Kerala Government A specific hospital where they registered Primarily the European Commission
Covered services Community health centers through 10,000 clinic sites provide culturally competent and comprehensive primary and preventive healthcare to migratory and seasonal farmworkers and their families. The program also emphasizes the occupational health and safety of this population. Hospital services in government hospital or empaneled private network hospital 1. Screening for and treatment of certain communicable diseases.
2. Benefit package covers comprehensive curative services, including antiretroviral therapy, and a range of prevention and health promotion services, similar to the Tai universal health coverage scheme.
NA Same with local residents
Legal Basis Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act   NA NA Regulation (EC) No 883/2004, and Regulation (EC) No 987/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council
Results In 2017, health centers served 972,251 migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families, of which, 872,565, or approximately 90%, were served by Migrant Health Centers Migrant laborers working in hotels, footwear sector, and other industries can obtain this insurance card by enrolling in this scheme. NA NA NA