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Table 1 Informal payments for health care services by hospital type

From: Informal payments for inpatient health care in post-health transformation plan period: evidence from Iran

 All respondentsAmong those who reported paying IPs
Used services in hospitalGiven IPs to either physician and/or other staff (n = 2696)Given to a physician onlyGiven to other staff only*Given to both a physician and other staff
Type of hospitalObserved frequency, n (%)Observed frequency, n (%)Amount in USD, mean ± SDObserved frequency, n (%)Amount in USD, mean ± SDObserved frequency, n (%)Amount in USD, mean ± SDObserved frequency, n (%)Amount in USD, mean ± SD
Public teaching1839 (68.2)175 (9.5)164.9 ± 224.9100 (57.1)284.9 ± 243.557 (32.6)3.9 ± 18.418 (10.3)94.6 ± 110.6
Private525 (19.5)194 (36.9)30.5 ± 67.16 (3.1)66.3 ± 0158 (81.4)12.2 ± 46.330 (15.5)121.8 ± 85.9
Social Security332 (12.3)9 (2.7)6.3 ± 7.95 (55.6)16.6 ± 04 (44.4)1.2 ± 0.60 (0.0)0 ± 0.0
All2696 (100)378 (14.0)90.5 ± 172.1111 (29.4)269.7 ± 242.6219 (57.9)9.9 ± 40.648 (12.7)111.6 ± 95.7
  1. Source: Authors’ analyses of data from Informal Patient Payments dataset
  2. Notes: * “Other staff” category includes nurses, midwives, security guards, therapists, technicians, clerical staff, and administrative staff. 1 USD = 30,170 IRR in 2016. Reported frequencies are not valid percentages and take all eligible respondents in a group as a denominator, mean values are calculated for valid responses, using the number of service users per type of a hospital as the denominator. The total values of frequencies of payments may vary because of missing answers (lack of response, refusal to respond or respondents did not know the answer). IPs include both cash and/or in-kind contributions, unless stated otherwise