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Table 3 Associates of poor SMPs among multi-morbid COPD patients of Nepal

From: Self-management practice, associated factors and its relationship with health literacy and patient activation among multi-morbid COPD patients from rural Nepal

VariablesUnstandardized βStandardised βConfidence Interval (CI)P-value
Gender
 MaleReferenceReference  
 Female0.050.003−2.45 to 2.55.96
Education status
 EducatedReferenceReference  
 Uneducated−0.43−0.22−.7.11to − 1.75.001
Age group(years)
 ≤40ReferenceReference  
 41–551.230.05−3.74 to 6.20.62
  ≥ 562.360.11−2.59 to 7.32.34
Marital status
 MarriedReferenceReference  
 Unmarried/Divorce/Widow/widower−0.33−.01−3.03 to 2.37.80
Ethnicity
 Higher casteReferenceReference  
 Indigenous−0.06−0.004−2.54 to 2.41.95
 Dalits (Untouchable as per traditional Hindu caste system)−.44−.02−3.49 to 2.60.77
Occupation
 Farmer/housewifeReferenceReference  
 Professional jobs (Govt, Private, Businessman).97.02−5.40 to 7.36.76
 Factory workers/labourers−1.66−0.9−4.08 to .76.17
Family income level (NRs)#
  < 20,000−5.22−.19−8.48 to − 1.96.002
  > 20,001ReferenceReference  
Use of tobacco products
 NoReferenceReference  
 Yes−0.97−.04−4.30 to 2.35.56
Presence of chronic illness by comorbidities
 At least oneaReferenceReference  
 More than twob3.58.17.99 to 6.16.007
  1. a Asthma
  2. b combination of any two or more of these diseases: diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, arthritis, insomnia, musculoskeletal disorders etc
  3. Results in bold indicate significant p-value at 95% CI
  4. # 1 USD = 110 NRS (Jan 2019 exchange rate)