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Table 4 Food: Means (±SDs) for NEA, desire and acceptability by label and health consequence [ranked from highest to lowest, 1–18]

From: Image-and-text health warning labels on alcohol and food: potential effectiveness and acceptability

LabelNegative emotional arousalNegative emotional arousal by health consequenceDesire to consume productDesire to consume product by health consequenceAcceptabilityAcceptability by health consequence
Bowel Cancer 14.59 (1.76) [1]4.44 (1.76),
95% CI: 4.31–4.56
3.05 (1.90) [17]3.08 (1.83)
95% CI: 2.95–3.21
3.67 (2.04) [18]3.78 (2.03)
95% CI: 3.64–3.92
Bowel Cancer 24.59 (1.74) [1]2.91 (1.83) [18]3.67 (2.05) [18]
Bowel Cancer 34.13 (1.75) [3]3.27 (1.77) [9]3.99 (2.00) [14]
Non-specified Cancer 13.93 (1.73) [5]3.82 (1.74)
95% CI: 3.69–3.94
3.38 (1.87) [6]3.39 (1.82)
95% CI: 3.26–3.52
4.13 (1.89) [11]4.15 (1.93)
95% CI: 4.02–4.29
Non-specified Cancer 23.82 (1.76) [7]3.43 (1.86) [4]4.06 (1.98) [13]
Non-specified Cancer 33.70 (1.73) [12]3.35 (1.74) [7]4.27 (1.92) [8]
13 types of Cancer 13.74 (1.77) [11]3.72 (1.75)
95% CI: 3.60–3.84
3.23 (1.76) [12]3.32 (1.83)
95% CI: 3.19–3.45
3.87 (1.96) [16]4.12 (1.94)
95% CI: 3.98–4.25
13 types of Cancer 23.60 (1.75) [14]3.47 (1.86) [2]4.18 (1.89) [9]
13 types of Cancer 33.82 (1.74) [7]3.26 (1.86) [10]4.30 (1.94) [7]
Type 2 Diabetes 13.85 (1.72) [6]3.65 (1.67)
95% CI: 3.53–3.77
3.07 (1.71) [16]3.26 (1.79)
95% CI: 3.13–3.38
4.42 (1.98) [5]4.45 (1.93)
95% CI: 4.31–4.58
Type 2 Diabetes 23.78 (1.71) [10]3.30 (1.88) [8]4.37 (1.94) [6]
Type 2 Diabetes 33.34 (1.53) [17]3.40 (1.77) [5]4.55 (1.89) [1]
Heart Disease 14.03 (1.70) [4]3.76 (1.78)
95% CI: 3.64–3.89
3.16 (1.72) [15]3.35 (1.82)
95% CI: 3.23–3.48
3.96 (2.03) [15]4.20 (1.98)
95% CI: 4.06–4.34
Heart Disease 23.66 (1.81) [13]3.25 (1.84) [11]4.15 (1.93) [10]
Heart Disease 33.60 (1.81) [14]3.65 (1.87) [1]4.48 (1.96) [3]
Obesity 13.12 (1.63) [18]3.45 (1.79)
95% CI: 3.32–3.57
3.44 (1.80) [3]3.29 (1.83)
95% CI: 3.16–3.42
4.51 (1.89) [2]4.35 (1.92)
95% CI: 4.21–4.48
Obesity 23.42 (1.77) [16]3.22 (1.79) [13]4.43 (1.87) [4]
Obesity 33.81 (1.89) [9]3.21 (1.90) [14]4.11 (1.99) [12]