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Table 1 Health consequences depicted in HWLs in the alcohol and food studies for the different health consequences used for the Alcohol and Food studies.

From: Image-and-text health warning labels on alcohol and food: potential effectiveness and acceptability

Health consequencesaAlcohol Study
“Alcohol causes …”
Food Study
“Excess calories cause obesity, which causes) …”
Non-specified cancer X
Bowel cancerXX
Breast cancerX 
Liver cancerX 
7 types of cancerX 
13 types of cancer X
Heart diseaseXX
Liver diseaseX 
Liver cirrhosisX 
Type 2 diabetes X
Obesityb X
  1. aThree HWLs with different images were used for each health consequence.
  2. bThe text read ‘Excess calories cause obesity’ without the additional clause.