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Table 6 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics; and means and effect sizes in the self-management and usual care (control) groups (copied from [45])

From: Evidence, theory and context: using intervention mapping in the development of a community-based self-management program for chronic low back pain in a rural African primary care setting - the good back program

VariablesBASELINE DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE TWO STUDY ARMS
 Good Back programme n = 13Usual care (control) n = 9
Gender: frequency (%)
 Female10 (76.9)6 (66.7)
 Male3 (23.1)3 (33.3)
Age (years): mean (SD)53.9 (14.1)60.3 (13.6)
Education (years): mean (SD)5.3 (5.4)4.4 (4.7)
Marital status: frequency (%)
 Married7 (53.8)5 (55.6)
 Widowed5 (38.5)4 (44.4)
 Single1 (7.7)0 (0)
Occupation: frequency (%)
 Self-employed/trading/farming8 (61.5)6 (66.7)
 Unemployed (health reasons)3 (23.1)2 (22.2)
 Student1 (7.7)0 (0)
 Retired1 (7.7)1 (11.1)
Religion: frequency (%)
 Catholic7 (53.8)6 (66.7)
 Anglican3 (23.1)0 (0)
 Methodist2 (15.4)0 (0)
 Pentecostal1 (7.7)3 (33.3)
Co-morbidity: frequency (%)
 None5 (38.5)1 (11.1)
 HBP5 (38.5)6 (66.7)
 Diabetes1 (7.7)0 (0)
 Headache+toothache1 (7.7)1 (11.1)
 Eye problems1 (7.7)1 (11.1)
LBP duration (years): mean (SD)6.8 (4.1)9.3 (15.4)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg): mean (SD)130.5 (23.5)130.0 (32.2)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg): mean (SD)80.7 (9.5)75.0 (10.5)
Pain tablets in the last 2 weeks: mean (SD)17.3 (14.0)28.2 (34.2)
RMDQ: mean (SD)17.0 (5.8)17.8 (4.6)
Pain intensity (Igbo-11-BS): mean (SD)6.8 (1.7)5.3 (1.6)
BIPQ: mean (SD)34.9 (10.7)41.1 (9.7)
FABQ: mean (SD)64.0 (21.9)65.3 (15.8)
BPS: mean (SD)3.2 (2.1)4.6 (2.7)
 POST-INTERVENTION MEANS AND EFFECT SIZES IN THE TWO STUDY ARMS  
 Post-test mean values (SD)Within-group/Pre- and post-test mean differences
(SD)
95% Confidence intervals of within-group mean differencesBetween-group mean differences95% Confidence intervals of between-group differencesBetween-group effect sizes
Hedges’ g (Glass’s Δ)
Good back programme
n = 12
Usual care (waiting list)
n = 8
Good back programme
n = 12
Usual care (waiting list)
n = 8
Good back programme
n = 12
Usual care (waiting list)
n = 8
   
RMDQ7.0 (4.2)19.6 (5.6)−9.8 (4.8)1.5 (3.9)−12.8, −6.7−1.8, 4.8−12.6− 17.2, −8.0−2.5 (−2.2)
BPS2.1 (1.6)4.6 (2.7)−0.8 (1.3)0.3 (2.8)−1.6, − 0.03−2.1, 2.6−2.5−4.5, − 0.5−1.2 (− 1.0)
BIPQ13.5 (9.5)45.6 (15.1)− 21.6 (15.2)3.8 (7.5)−31.3, −11.9−2.5, 10.0−32.1−43.6, − 20.6−2.6 (− 2.1)
FABQ20.3 (15.9)73.5 (28.5)− 41.7 (27.6)7.8 (35.8)− 59.2, − 24.1−22.2, 37.7−53.2−74.0, − 32.4−2.3 (− 1.9)
11-BS2.8 (1.3)7.0 (2.5)−3.8 (2.1)1.5 (3.1)−5.2, −2.5−1.1, 4.1−4.2−5.9, − 2.4−2.2 (− 1.7)
Number of Pain tablets3.2 (5.0)28.5 (37.8)− 14.6 (12.1)−2.8 (20.3)− 22.3, − 6.9−19.7, 14.2−25.3−48.3, − 2.4−1.0 (− 0.7)
SBP (mmHg)118.3 (11.6)131.3 (30.0)−12.5 (23.7)2.0 (35.6)−29.5, 4.5−42.2, 46.2− 13.0−32.9, 6.9−0.6 (− 0.4)
DBP (mmHg)70.8 (13.3)75.6 (15.0)−5.8 (14.4)0.0 (10.0)−16.1, 4.5−12.4, 12.4−4.8− 18.2, 8.6−0.3 (− 0.3)
  1. SD standard deviation