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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Adiposity reduces the risk of osteoporosis in Chinese rural population: the Henan rural cohort study

VariablesLow risk (n = 3319)Medium risk (n = 3780)High risk (n = 1376)P
Age (years), means (SD)52.80 (11.06)a55.49 (10.68)b60.37 (10.43)< 0.001
Female, n (%)1938 (58.39)2132 (56.40)982 (71.37)< 0.001
Education level, n (%)   < 0.001
 Elementary school or below1167 (35.16)1566 (41.43)776 (56.39) 
 Junior high school1444 (43.51)1578 (41.75)432 (31.40) 
 High school or above708 (21.33)636 (16/82)168 (12.21) 
Average monthly individual income, n (%)   < 0.001
 < 500 RMB990 (29.83)1189 (31.46)512 (37.21) 
 500–1000 RMB984 (29.65)1117 (29.55)393 (28.56) 
 ≥ 1000 RMB1345 (40.52)1474 (38.99)471 (34.23) 
Marital status, n (%)   < 0.001
 Married/cohabitating3122 (94.06)3448 (91.22)1169 (84.96) 
 Unmarried/divorced/widowed197 (5.94)332 (8.78)207 (15.04) 
Smoker, n (%)   < 0.001
 Non-smoker2438 (73.46)2654 (70.21)1090 (79.21) 
 Ex-smoker263 (7.92)353 (9.34)103 (7.49) 
 Smoker618 (18.62)773 (20.45)183 (13.30) 
Drinker, n (%)   < 0.001
 Non-drinker2483 (74.84)2775 (73.43)1135 (82.49) 
 Ex-drinker166 (5.00)237 (6.27)54 (3.92) 
 Drinker669 (20.16)767 (20.30)187 (13.59) 
Physical activity, n (%)   < 0.001
 Low1128 (33.99)1056 (27.94)421 (30.60) 
 Moderate1246 (37.54)1439 (38.07)529 (38.44) 
 High945 (28.47)1285 (33.99)426 (30.96) 
Dietary habits (g/day), mean (SD)
 Meat and poultry50.65 (84.36)a47.89 (48.63)b38.01 (42.94)< 0.001
 Fish4.80 (11.71)a4.94 (15.52)b3.76 (8.15)0.014
 Vegetables and fruits518.15 (275.49)a517.67 (260.68)b475.14 (246.01)< 0.001
 Bean36.17 (52.19)a32.95 (45.84)30.25 (88.53)0.003
WC (cm), mean (SD)85.91 (10.27)a84.52 (10.22)b81.96 (10.46)< 0.001
WHR, mean (SD)0.900 (0.075)a0.899 (0.082)b0.886 (0.085)< 0.001
WHtR, mean (SD)0.535 (0.062)a0.527 (0.064)b0.521 (0.069)< 0.001
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)25.26 (3.41)a24.81 (3.38)b23.84 (3.47)< 0.001
BFP, mean (SD)29.86 (6.05)a29.55 (6.30)b30.98 (6.59)< 0.001
VFI, mean (SD)9.78 (4.59)a9.48 (4.40)b8.27 (4.10)< 0.001
FFM (kg), mean (SD)45.73 (8.17)a45.03 (8.05)b40.80 (7.32)< 0.001
Estimated BMD (g/cm2), mean (SD)0.55 (0.08)a0.41 (0.04)b0.29 (0.04)< 0.001
T-score, mean (SD)−0.08 (0.81)a−1.76 (0.41)b−2.95 (0.37)< 0.001
  1. aLow risk vs. High risk, P < 0.05; bMedium risk vs. High risk, P < 0.05
  2. Abbreviation: RMB Renminbi; SD Standard deviation, WC Waist circumference, WHR Waist to hip ratio, WHtR Waist to height ratio, BMI Body mass index, BFP Body fat percentage, VFI Visceral fat index, FFM Fat-free mass, BMD Bone mineral density