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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Adiposity reduces the risk of osteoporosis in Chinese rural population: the Henan rural cohort study

Variables Low risk (n = 3319) Medium risk (n = 3780) High risk (n = 1376) P
Age (years), means (SD) 52.80 (11.06)a 55.49 (10.68)b 60.37 (10.43) < 0.001
Female, n (%) 1938 (58.39) 2132 (56.40) 982 (71.37) < 0.001
Education level, n (%)     < 0.001
 Elementary school or below 1167 (35.16) 1566 (41.43) 776 (56.39)  
 Junior high school 1444 (43.51) 1578 (41.75) 432 (31.40)  
 High school or above 708 (21.33) 636 (16/82) 168 (12.21)  
Average monthly individual income, n (%)     < 0.001
 < 500 RMB 990 (29.83) 1189 (31.46) 512 (37.21)  
 500–1000 RMB 984 (29.65) 1117 (29.55) 393 (28.56)  
 ≥ 1000 RMB 1345 (40.52) 1474 (38.99) 471 (34.23)  
Marital status, n (%)     < 0.001
 Married/cohabitating 3122 (94.06) 3448 (91.22) 1169 (84.96)  
 Unmarried/divorced/widowed 197 (5.94) 332 (8.78) 207 (15.04)  
Smoker, n (%)     < 0.001
 Non-smoker 2438 (73.46) 2654 (70.21) 1090 (79.21)  
 Ex-smoker 263 (7.92) 353 (9.34) 103 (7.49)  
 Smoker 618 (18.62) 773 (20.45) 183 (13.30)  
Drinker, n (%)     < 0.001
 Non-drinker 2483 (74.84) 2775 (73.43) 1135 (82.49)  
 Ex-drinker 166 (5.00) 237 (6.27) 54 (3.92)  
 Drinker 669 (20.16) 767 (20.30) 187 (13.59)  
Physical activity, n (%)     < 0.001
 Low 1128 (33.99) 1056 (27.94) 421 (30.60)  
 Moderate 1246 (37.54) 1439 (38.07) 529 (38.44)  
 High 945 (28.47) 1285 (33.99) 426 (30.96)  
Dietary habits (g/day), mean (SD)
 Meat and poultry 50.65 (84.36)a 47.89 (48.63)b 38.01 (42.94) < 0.001
 Fish 4.80 (11.71)a 4.94 (15.52)b 3.76 (8.15) 0.014
 Vegetables and fruits 518.15 (275.49)a 517.67 (260.68)b 475.14 (246.01) < 0.001
 Bean 36.17 (52.19)a 32.95 (45.84) 30.25 (88.53) 0.003
WC (cm), mean (SD) 85.91 (10.27)a 84.52 (10.22)b 81.96 (10.46) < 0.001
WHR, mean (SD) 0.900 (0.075)a 0.899 (0.082)b 0.886 (0.085) < 0.001
WHtR, mean (SD) 0.535 (0.062)a 0.527 (0.064)b 0.521 (0.069) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 25.26 (3.41)a 24.81 (3.38)b 23.84 (3.47) < 0.001
BFP, mean (SD) 29.86 (6.05)a 29.55 (6.30)b 30.98 (6.59) < 0.001
VFI, mean (SD) 9.78 (4.59)a 9.48 (4.40)b 8.27 (4.10) < 0.001
FFM (kg), mean (SD) 45.73 (8.17)a 45.03 (8.05)b 40.80 (7.32) < 0.001
Estimated BMD (g/cm2), mean (SD) 0.55 (0.08)a 0.41 (0.04)b 0.29 (0.04) < 0.001
T-score, mean (SD) −0.08 (0.81)a −1.76 (0.41)b −2.95 (0.37) < 0.001
  1. aLow risk vs. High risk, P < 0.05; bMedium risk vs. High risk, P < 0.05
  2. Abbreviation: RMB Renminbi; SD Standard deviation, WC Waist circumference, WHR Waist to hip ratio, WHtR Waist to height ratio, BMI Body mass index, BFP Body fat percentage, VFI Visceral fat index, FFM Fat-free mass, BMD Bone mineral density