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Table 5 Decomposition analysis of private and public individual healthcare utilisation

From: Socio-economic inequalities in the multiple dimensions of access to healthcare: the case of South Africa

  Individual healthcare utilisation
Private care Public care
Variable Margins Absolute SE p-value (%) Total Margins Absolute SE p-value (%) Total
Sex:
 Male = reference
 Female −0.025 0.001 0.001 0.321 0.31 0.31 0.071a −0.002 0.001 0.094 0.92 0.92
Age 0.001a 0.005 0.001 0.004 1.96 1.96 0.001c 0.003 0.001 0.085 −1.24 −1.24
Race:
 Non-African = reference
 African −0.006 0.003 0.007 0.767 1.03 1.03 0.108a −0.047 0.005 0.000 20.24 20.24
Geographical area:
 Rural = reference
 Urban 0.027 0.015 0.009 0.181 5.95 5.95 −0.029c −0.016 0.005 0.081 6.78 6.78
Self-reported health:
 Poor health = reference
 Good health −0.029 −0.002 0.001 0.148 −0.89 −0.89 − 0.065a −0.005 0.001 0.001 2.12 2.12
WHODAS score −0.001 0.002 0.001 0.332 0.66 0.66 0.002 −0.004 0.002 0.167 1.54 1.54
Psychological distress:
 Not distressed = reference
 Distressed 0.041 −0.002 0.001 0.305 −0.67 −0.67 0.024 −0.001 0.001 0.509 0.42 0.42
Needed care:
 No = reference
 Yes 0.519a 0.032 0.008 0.001 12.81 12.81 0.472a 0.029 0.005 0.002 −12.44 −12.44
Household healthcare postponed:
 No = reference
 Yes −0.028 0.005 0.004 0.381 1.95 1.95 0.007 −0.001 0.002 0.754 0.56 0.56
Unmet need:
 No = reference
 Yes 0.015 0.000 0.001 0.763 −0.18 −0.18 −0.042 0.001 0.001 0.537 −0.52 −0.52
Household distance to a healthcare facility:
 More than 10Km away = reference
 0–10 Km away 0.023 0.005 0.004 0.273 2.02 2.02 0.008 0.002 0.002 0.635 −0.75 −0.75
Household medical insurance:
 No = reference
 Yes 0.208a 0.115 0.010 0.000 46.40 46.40 −0.204a − 0.112 0.008 0.000 48.58 48.58
Household difficulty affording cost of care:
 No = reference
 Yes 0.083a −0.016 0.005 0.008 −6.62 −6.62 −0.034 0.007 0.003 0.197 −2.89 −2.89
Household difficulty affording prescription medicine:
 No = reference
 Yes −0.014 0.003 0.006 0.663 1.20 1.20 0.027 −0.006 0.003 0.291 2.41 2.41
Wealth index:
 Quintile 1 = reference
 Quintile 2 −0.007 0.002 0.008 0.822 0.89   0.041c −0.014 0.004 0.059 5.83  
 Quintile 3 0.052c −0.004 0.002 0.086 −1.47   −0.013 0.001 0.001 0.589 −0.38  
 Quintile 4 0.075b 0.020 0.007 0.011 8.19   −0.035 − 0.010 0.004 0.138 4.15  
 Quintile 5 0.130a 0.093 0.021 0.000 37.58 45.20 −0.081b − 0.058 0.013 0.007 25.16 34.76
Residual   −0.027     −11.13   0.001     −0.48
Total   0.247     100.00   −0.231     100.00
  1. Note: SE Standard error, % Percentage contribution, WHODAS score World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule, K10 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; astatistically significant at the 1% level; b statistically significant at the 5% level; cstatistically significant at the 10% level