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Table 4 Bivariable and multivariable mixed effects logistic regression for the association between participant demographic characteristics and practices and Brucella spp. seropositivity, 2012–2013

From: Comparison of knowledge, attitude, and practices of animal and human brucellosis between nomadic pastoralists and non-pastoralists in Kenya

VariableCategoryBrucella spp. seropositivityBivariable analysisMultivariable mixed effects logistic model
PositiveNegativeCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
SexMale191 (53.5)719 (43.7)1.5 (1.2–1.9)1.46 (1.0–2.2)
Female166 (46.5)928 (56.3)refβrefβ
Age, yearsMean (SD)37.8 (19.9)35.3 (19.4)1.0 (1.0–1.0)1.0 (1.0–1.0)
Highest education level completedPrimary75 (21.1)682 (41.6)0.1 (0.1–0.2)0.5 (0.3–1.0)
Secondary16 (4.5)489 (29.8)< 0.1 (< 0.1–0.1)0.2 (0.1–0.6)
Post secondary4 (1.12)163 (9.9)< 0.1 (< 0.1–0.1)0.4 (0.1–1.5)
No Formal Education261 (73.3)306 (18.7)refβrefβ
Production systemNomadic Pastoralist272 (88.3)286 (23.3)24.7 (17.2–36.3)8.6 (3.6–20.2)
Mixed Farming36 (11.7)939 (76.7)refβrefβ
Drink unboiled milkYes227 (68.2)233 (14.6)12.5 (9.6–16.4)2.8 (1.4–5.3)
No106 (31.8)1364 (85.4)refβrefβ
Drink raw bloodYes88 (24.6)88 (5.3)5.8 (4.2–8.0)1.1 (0.6–1.8)
No269 (75.4)1559 (94.7)refβrefβ
Assist in animal birthingYes107 (42.1)170 (16.7)3.6 (2.7–4.9)0.9 (0.5–1.4)
No147 (57.9)845 (83.3)refβrefβ
Handle raw hidesYes97 (27.2)148 (9.0)3.8 (2.8–5.0)1.0 (0.6–1.6)
No260 (72.8)1499 (91.0)refβrefβ
Clean barnsYes240 (67.2)909 (55.2)1.7 (1.3–2.1)1.0 (0.5–1.2)
No117 (32.8)738 (44.8)refβrefβ
  1. refβ Reference category
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