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Table 1 Neighbourhood and individual characteristics of sample as assessed at the start of the intervention (N = 729)

From: Who can we reach and who can we keep? Predictors of intervention engagement and adherence in a cluster randomized controlled trial in South Africa

 N or %
Neighbourhoods characteristics
 Total number of dwellings, i.e. brick and shack structures21,877
  Informal dwellings/shacks11,572 (53%)
  Houses:shebeen ratio66:1
 Informal bar/Shebeen (average, per neighbourhood)13, SD 4.3
 Day Care Centre/Creches (average, per neighbourhood)2, SD 1.5
 Spaza Shops (average, per neighbourhood)6, SD 3.0
Demographic characteristics
 Age, mean (SD)22.5 (2.8)
 Highest education level, mean (SD)10.4 (1.5)
 Married45 (6.2%)
 Income above 500 Rand353 (48.4%)
 Formal housing334 (63.4%)
  Access to electricity523 (99.2%)
  Access to water source (home)284 (53.9%)
  Access to toilet (on premises)406 (77.0%)
  Main source of fuel for cooking (electric)467 (88.6%)
 Living with Parents479 (65.7%)
 Living with Partners45 (6.2%)
General Health
 Chronic Illness 
  Alcoholism110 (67.1%)
  HIV25 (15.2%)
 Depression Score, mean (SD)15.9 (9.8)
 Depressed Case, score ≥ 16320 (43.9%)
 Perceived stress scale, mean (SD)14.4 (7.4)
 Stress Case, score ≥ 13214 (59.0%)
Social support and Gangsterism
 Number of close friends, mean (SD)2.6 (1.7)
 Gangsterism
  Number of arrests lifetime, mean (SD)0.7 (1.3)
  Number of prison sentences lifetime, mean (SD)0.3 (0.6)
  Gang membership168 (23.0%)
 Aggregate/gang variable, mean (SD)2.5 (1.8)
 Group violence425 (58.3%)
 Group violence involvement311 (42.7%)
Substance Use, in the past 3 months
  Alcohol use529 (72.6%)
  Drink 6 or more (Daily)7 (1.2%)
  Problematic Drinker116 (15.9%)
  Marjiuana / Dagga427 (75.7%)
  Mandrax121 (57.1%)
  Methamephetamine / Tik132 (18.1%)
 Aggregate substance score, mean (SD)2.8 (2.0)