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Table 3 Mean hemoglobin concentration and anemia prevalence among children aged 6–35 months with various parental migration statuses

From: The association between parental migration and early childhood nutrition of left-behind children in rural China

  Outcomes [mean (SD)/ n/N (%)] a Adjusted differences [aMD (95%CI) / aOR (95%CI)] b
NLBC FLBC PLBC Total FLBC vs. NLBC PLBC vs. NLBC PLBC vs. FLBC
2013
 Hemoglobin concentration (g/dL)
  6–17 months 10.43 (1.52) 10.38 (1.54) 10.99 (1.38) ‡§ 10.44 (1.53) −0.08 (− 0.29, 0.14) 0.53 (0.10, 0.96) 0.60 (0.15, 1.04)
  18–35 months 11.30 (1.18) 11.23 (1.43) 11.38 (1.48) 11.29 (1.30) −0.07 (− 0.22, 0.09) 0.05 (− 0.18, 0.29) 0.10 (− 0.15, 0.35)
  Total 10.95 (1.39) 10.85 (1.54) 11.29 (1.46) ‡§ 10.95 (1.46) −0.08 (− 0.20, 0.05) 0.18 (− 0.03, 0.39) 0.24 (0.02, 0.46)
 Anemia
  6–17 months 311/506 (61.5%) 229/360 (63.6%) 25/58 (43.1%) ‡§ 565/924 (61.1%) 0.06 (−0.18, 0.30) 0.75 (0.35, 1.15) 0.71 (0.29, 1.12)
  18–35 months 245/749 (32.7%) 160/445 (36.0%) 55/171 (32.2%) 460/1365 (33.7%) −0.07 (− 0.27, 0.13) −0.12 (− 0.36, 0.11) −0.10 (− 0.35, 0.15)
  Total 556/1255 (44.3%) 389/805 (48.3%) 80/229 (34.9%) ‡§ 1025/2289 (44.8%) 1.17 (0.96, 1.41) 0.78 (0.56, 1.08) 0.67 (0.47, 0.94)
2016
 Hemoglobin concentration (g/dL)
  6–17 months 10.27 (1.59) 10.32 (1.88) 11.10 (1.04) ‡§ 10.36 (1.68) 1.13 (0.84, 1.52) 0.47 (0.27, 0.85) 0.42 (0.23, 0.76)
  18–35 months 11.31 (1.43) 11.14 (1.77) 11.17 (1.93) 11.23 (1.65) 1.17 (0.91, 1.52) 1.00 (0.67, 1.50) 0.85 (0.56, 1.31)
  Total 10.87 (1.59) 10.80 (1.86) 11.15 (1.75) ‡§ 10.89 (1.72) −0.01 (−0.16, 0.14) 0.14 (−0.06, 0.34) 0.12 (−0.09, 0.33)
 Anemia
  6–17 months 299/452 (66.2%) 193/321 (60.1%) 34/80 (42.5%) ‡§ 526/853 (61.7%) 0.80 (0.58, 1.09) 0.39 (0.23, 0.65) 0.49 (0.29, 0.82)
  18–35 months 187/628 (29.8%) 161/450 (35.8%) 83/252 (32.9%) 431/1330 (32.4%) 1.17 (0.89, 1.53) 1.00 (0.72, 1.39) 0.86 (0.61, 1.21)
  Total 486/1080 (45.0%) 354/771 (45.9%) 117/332 (35.2%) ‡§ 957/2183 (43.8%) 0.99 (0.80, 1.21) 0.74 (0.56, 0.97) 0.75 (0.56, 1.00)
  1. NLBC non-left-behind children, FLBC left-behind children with migrant fathers, PLBC left-behind children with both migrant parents, aMD adjusted mean difference, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. aThe number of children with available outcomes was indicated with N after slash
  3. baMDs and aORs were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of children (resident county, child gender, age, preterm and ethnicity) in 2013, and additional two intervention variables (the frequency of consumption of Yingyangbao supplements and the frequency of received nutritional consultations) in 2016
  4. FLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; PLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; § PLBC vs. FLBC p < 0.05