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Table 1 Characteristics of the children and caregivers

From: The association between parental migration and early childhood nutrition of left-behind children in rural China

Characteristics2013 survey2016 survey
NLBC (n = 1285)FLBC (n = 819)PLBC (n = 232)NLBC (n = 1089)FLBC (n = 784)PLBC (n = 337)
Resident county, n (%)
 Lin181 (14.1)110 (13.4) 14 (6.0) ‡§150 (13.8)98 (12.5) 21 (6.2) ‡§
 Fenxi157 (12.2)242 (29.5)7 (3.0)113 (10.4)239 (30.5)71 (21.1)
 Fangshan229 (17.8)170 (20.8)17 (7.3)191 (17.5)114 (14.5)20 (5.9)
 Songtao120 (9.3)28 (3.4)43 (18.5)100 (9.2)29 (3.7)37 (11.0)
 Liping100 (7.8)74 (9.0)110 (47.4)109 (10.0)87 (11.1)76 (22.6)
 Pan498 (38.8)195 (23.8)41 (17.7)426 (39.1)217 (27.7)112 (33.2)
Boys, n (%)727 (56.6)467 (57.0)121 (52.2)601 (55.2)440 (56.1)169 (50.1)
Child age (months), median (25th, 75th)20 (13, 27)19 (11, 27)23 (17, 28) ‡§20 (12, 27)20 (12, 27)22 (18, 29) ‡§
Preterm children, n (%)39 (3.0)24 (2.9)2 (0.9)54 (5.0)47 (6.0)11 (3.3)
Minority ethnic of children, n (%)435 (33.9)199 (24.3) 167 (72.0) ‡§394 (36.2)205 (26.1) 163 (48.4) ‡§
Relationship of caregivers to the child, n (%)
 Parents1243 (96.7)776 (94.7)0 (0.0) ‡§1048 (96.2)733 (93.5) 0 (0.0) ‡§
 Grandparents39 (3.0)42 (5.1)229 (98.7)39 (3.6)47 (6.0)321 (95.3)
 Others3 (0.2)1 (0.1)3 (1.3)2 (0.2)4 (0.5)16 (4.7)
Female gender of caregiver, n (%)1035 (80.5)809 (98.8) 187 (80.6) §938 (86.1)762 (97.2) 279 (82.8) §
Caregiver age (years), median (25th, 75th)27 (24, 31)26 (24, 30)51 (48, 56) ‡§27 (24, 32)27 (24, 31)52 (47, 56) ‡§
Education attainment of caregivers, n (%)
 High school or above165 (12.9)123 (15.0)8 (3.4) ‡§218 (20.0)158 (20.2)18 (5.3) ‡§
 Middle school694 (54.0)462 (56.4)42 (18.1)560 (51.4)423 (54.0)87 (25.8)
 Primary school343 (26.7)186 (22.7)66 (28.4)249 (22.9)162 (20.7)104 (30.9)
 Illiteracy83 (6.5)48 (5.9)116 (50.0)62 (5.7)41 (5.2)128 (38.0)
Depression among caregivers a, n (%)485 (40.0)291 (37.1)117 (50.6) ‡§388 (35.9)249 (31.8)128 (38.0) §
Low household economic status b, n (%)180 (14.0)79 (9.6) 44 (19.0) §157 (14.4)122 (15.6)89 (26.4) ‡§
  1. NLBC non-left-behind children, FLBC left-behind children with migrant fathers, PLBC left-behind children with both migrant parents
  2. a73 NLBC, 34 FLBC and 1 PLBC in 2013, and 9 NLBC and 2 FLBC in 2016 missed the information of depression among caregivers
  3. b1 NLBC in 2013 and 1 FLBC in 2016 missed the information of household economic status
  4. FLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; PLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; § PLBC vs. FLBC p < 0.05