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Table 1 Characteristics of the children and caregivers

From: The association between parental migration and early childhood nutrition of left-behind children in rural China

Characteristics 2013 survey 2016 survey
NLBC (n = 1285) FLBC (n = 819) PLBC (n = 232) NLBC (n = 1089) FLBC (n = 784) PLBC (n = 337)
Resident county, n (%)
 Lin 181 (14.1) 110 (13.4) 14 (6.0) ‡§ 150 (13.8) 98 (12.5) 21 (6.2) ‡§
 Fenxi 157 (12.2) 242 (29.5) 7 (3.0) 113 (10.4) 239 (30.5) 71 (21.1)
 Fangshan 229 (17.8) 170 (20.8) 17 (7.3) 191 (17.5) 114 (14.5) 20 (5.9)
 Songtao 120 (9.3) 28 (3.4) 43 (18.5) 100 (9.2) 29 (3.7) 37 (11.0)
 Liping 100 (7.8) 74 (9.0) 110 (47.4) 109 (10.0) 87 (11.1) 76 (22.6)
 Pan 498 (38.8) 195 (23.8) 41 (17.7) 426 (39.1) 217 (27.7) 112 (33.2)
Boys, n (%) 727 (56.6) 467 (57.0) 121 (52.2) 601 (55.2) 440 (56.1) 169 (50.1)
Child age (months), median (25th, 75th) 20 (13, 27) 19 (11, 27) 23 (17, 28) ‡§ 20 (12, 27) 20 (12, 27) 22 (18, 29) ‡§
Preterm children, n (%) 39 (3.0) 24 (2.9) 2 (0.9) 54 (5.0) 47 (6.0) 11 (3.3)
Minority ethnic of children, n (%) 435 (33.9) 199 (24.3) 167 (72.0) ‡§ 394 (36.2) 205 (26.1) 163 (48.4) ‡§
Relationship of caregivers to the child, n (%)
 Parents 1243 (96.7) 776 (94.7) 0 (0.0) ‡§ 1048 (96.2) 733 (93.5) 0 (0.0) ‡§
 Grandparents 39 (3.0) 42 (5.1) 229 (98.7) 39 (3.6) 47 (6.0) 321 (95.3)
 Others 3 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 3 (1.3) 2 (0.2) 4 (0.5) 16 (4.7)
Female gender of caregiver, n (%) 1035 (80.5) 809 (98.8) 187 (80.6) § 938 (86.1) 762 (97.2) 279 (82.8) §
Caregiver age (years), median (25th, 75th) 27 (24, 31) 26 (24, 30) 51 (48, 56) ‡§ 27 (24, 32) 27 (24, 31) 52 (47, 56) ‡§
Education attainment of caregivers, n (%)
 High school or above 165 (12.9) 123 (15.0) 8 (3.4) ‡§ 218 (20.0) 158 (20.2) 18 (5.3) ‡§
 Middle school 694 (54.0) 462 (56.4) 42 (18.1) 560 (51.4) 423 (54.0) 87 (25.8)
 Primary school 343 (26.7) 186 (22.7) 66 (28.4) 249 (22.9) 162 (20.7) 104 (30.9)
 Illiteracy 83 (6.5) 48 (5.9) 116 (50.0) 62 (5.7) 41 (5.2) 128 (38.0)
Depression among caregivers a, n (%) 485 (40.0) 291 (37.1) 117 (50.6) ‡§ 388 (35.9) 249 (31.8) 128 (38.0) §
Low household economic status b, n (%) 180 (14.0) 79 (9.6) 44 (19.0) § 157 (14.4) 122 (15.6) 89 (26.4) ‡§
  1. NLBC non-left-behind children, FLBC left-behind children with migrant fathers, PLBC left-behind children with both migrant parents
  2. a73 NLBC, 34 FLBC and 1 PLBC in 2013, and 9 NLBC and 2 FLBC in 2016 missed the information of depression among caregivers
  3. b1 NLBC in 2013 and 1 FLBC in 2016 missed the information of household economic status
  4. FLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; PLBC vs. NLBC p < 0.05; § PLBC vs. FLBC p < 0.05