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Table 3 Prevalence rate ratio of lower-extremity amputation in relation to demographic and geographic factors

From: Urban-rural disparity in lower extremities amputation in patients with diabetes after nearly two decades of universal health Insurance in Taiwan

 Model 1Model 2
Prevalence rate ratio (95% CI)Prevalence rate ratio (95% CI)
Year
 2009Ref.Ref.
 20100.91 (0.85–0.97)**0.90 (0.85–0.96)**
 20110.80 (0.75–0.85)**0.80 (0.75–0.86)**
 20120.65 (0.60–0.69)**0.65 (0.61–0.70)**
 20130.68 (0.63–0.72)**0.68 (0.63–0.72)**
P-value for trend< 0.001< 0.001
Sex
 FemaleRef.Ref.
 Male1.46 (1.40–1.52)**1.46 (1.40–1.52)**
Age (years)
 55–64Ref.Ref.
 65–741.12 (1.07–1.18)**1.12 (1.07–1.19)**
 75–841.38 (1.30–1.45)**1.38 (1.31–1.46)**
 85 and over1.76 (1.63–1.9)**1.12 (1.07–1.19)**
P-value for trend< 0.001< 0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension1.78 (1.69–1.88)**1.78 (1.69–1.88)**
 Nephropathy2.51 (2.33–2.70)**2.50 (2.33–2.69)**
 CVD2.29 (2.2–2.39)**2.29 (2.19–2.39)**
Urbanization
 UrbanRef.Ref.
 Sub-urban1.47 (1.40–1.54)**1.47 (1.39–1.55)**
 Rural1.68 (1.58–1.78)**1.68 (1.56–1.82)**
P-value for trend< 0.001< 0.001
Median family income (NTD)
 585,000 and over Ref.
 533,000-584,999 1.08 (1.02–1.14)**
 501,000-532,999 1.03 (0.95–1.10)
 0–501,000 1.05 (0.97–1.13)
P-value for trend 0.434
Density of surgeons (no. per 105 population)
 20 and over Ref.
 10–19 0.94 (0.87–1.02)
 5–9 0.96 (0.87–1.07)
 0–4 1.01 (0.91–1.13)
P-value for trend 0.544
Density of internal medicine (no. per 105 population)
 40 and over Ref.
 20–39 0.98 (0.90–1.06)
 10–19 1.01 (0.90–1.12)
 0–9 0.94 (0.85–1.06)
P-value for trend 0.240
Density of family medicine (no. per 105 population)
 20 and over Ref.
 15–19 0.95 (0.89–1.03)
 10–14 0.92 (0.86–1.00)**
 0–9 0.98 (0.91–1.06)
P-value for trend 0.917
  1. ** P < 0.05
  2. NTD New Taiwan Dollar (1 USD ≈ 32 NTD)
  3. CVD cerebral vascular disease