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Table 4 Association of participants’ characteristics with the adjusted odds of seropositive for HIV, HBV, and HCV among PWID in Dar-es-salaam

From: High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viral infections among people who inject drugs: a potential stumbling block in the control of HIV and viral hepatitis in Tanzania

VariableHIVHCVHBV
COR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)COR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)COR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Age > 39 yrs1.04(0.59–1.82)a0.91(0.54–1.55)a0.48(0.17–1.33)0.56(0.17–1.79)
Male Sex (Ref. Female)0.59(0.29–1.74)0.62(0.29–1.30)0.70(0.38–1.29)0.93(0.48–1.88)1.70(0.60–4.84)1.51(0.42–5.39)
Married Marital status (Ref. Unmarried)2.13(1.20–3.78)2.04(1.10–3.79)1.34(0.78–2.31)1.03(0.57–1.86)0.62(0.21–1.83)0.66(0.19–2.26)
High education level (Ref. Low level)1.33(0.75–2.36)a0.91(0.53–1.58)a0.33(0.09–1.20)0.31(0.08–1.25)
Employed (Ref: Unemployed)1.03(0.52–2.05a0.79(0.41–1.54)a1.04(0.36–2.97)a
Business (Ref: Unemployed)0.65(0.33–1.29)a0.73(0.39–1.37)aba
Monthly Income>45USD0.67(0.37–1.19)0.58(0.32–1.06)1.14(0.67–1.95)a0.71(0.25–1.98)a
IDU > 3 years1.49(0.83–2.69)1.31(0.69–2.46)2.13(1.89–3.81)2.04(1.11–3.74)2.60(0.96–7.062.42(0.72–8.12)
Injection > 3 times per day1.12(0.55–2.27)a1.27(0.65–2.47)a0.43(0.15–1.22)0.72(0.19–2.72)
Needle sharing1.91(1.08–3.37)1.75(0.92–3.29)1.06(0.62–1.79)0.76(0.41–1.39)0.76(0.27–2.07)0.70(0.21–2.35)
Use of condom0.51(0.29–0.90)0.76(0.39–1.48)0.45(0.26–0.77)0.42(0.22–0.79)1.55(0.57–4.22)1.26(0.34–4.71)
  1. Key: AOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, COR Crude odds ratio, Ref Reference
  2. aNot included in multivariable models
  3. bExncluded from multivariable medole because of zero observation in one cell
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