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Table 3 Comparison of internalized and enacted stigma with sociodemographic and health related variables among Ebola survivors

From: An assessment of Ebola-related stigma and its association with informal healthcare utilisation among Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsVariablesInternalized stigmaEnacted stigma
Yes n (%)No n (%)p-valueYes n (%)No n (%)p-value
Age group18–33 years158(53.0)36(60.0)0.599179(53.8)15(60.0)0.815
34–49 years114(38.3)20(33.3)125(37.5)9(36.0)
≥ 50 years26(8.7)4(6.7)29(8.7)1(4.0)
SexMale111(37.2)24(40.0)0.688129(38.7)6(24.0)0.143
female187(62.8)36(60.0)204(61.3)19(76.0)
Educational StatusNon-formal education127(42.6)20(33.3)0.551135(40.5)12(48.0)0.396
Primary36(12.1)8(13.3)39(11.7)5(20.0)
Secondary103(34.6)23(38.3)120(36.0)6(24.0)
Tertiary32(10.7)9(15.0)39(11.7)2(8.0)
Religious AffiliationChristianity83(27.9)9(15.0)0.03887(26.1)5(20.0)0.499
Islam215(72.1)51(85.0)246(73.9)20(80.0)
Marital StatusSingle83(27.9)17(28.3)0.67694(28.2)6(24.0)0.861
Married/Cohabitating140(47.0)31(51.7)159(47.7)12(48.0)
Divorced/Separated/widowed75(25.2)12(20.0)80(24.0)7(28.0)
Financial managementIt is impossible/ Difficult all the time91(30.5)19(31.7)0.515102(30.6)8(32.0)0.697
difficult some time197(66.1)41(68.3)222(66.7)16(64.0)
Not too bad10(3.4)0(0.0)9(2.7)1(4.0) 
Monthly income (Leones)Less than 500,000211(70.8)41(68.3) 236(70.9)16(64.0)0.477
500,000 - 1million76(25.5)18(30.0)0.69985(25.5)9(26.0)
>1million11(3.7)1(1.7)12(3.6)0(0.0)
Residential AreaUrban185(62.1)34(56.7)0.432204(61.3)15(60.0)0.901
Rural113(37.9)26(43.3)129(38.7)10(40.0)
RegionNorthern region (Bambali district)108(36.2)12(20.0)0.084110(33.0)10(40.0)0.619
Southern region (Bo district)42(14.1)13(21.7)53(15.9)2(8.0)
Eastern region (Kenema district)51(17.1)11(18.3)59(17.7)3(12.0)
Western Area97(32.6)24(40.0)111(33.3)10(40.0)
Employment status after surviving EbolaFull time134(45.0)30(50.0)0.467149(44.7)15(60.0)0.187
Part time12(4.0)4(6.7)16(4.8)0(0.0)
Casual/Temporal15(5.0)4(6.7)16(4.8)3(12.0)
Looking for job84(28.2)16(26.7)96(28.8)4(16.0)
not in paid work force53(17.8)6(10.0)56(16.8)3(12.0)
Current perceived health statusVery good/Good71(23.8)25(41.7) 88(26.4)8(32.0) 
 Fair/poor227(76.2)35(58.3)0.004245(73.6)17(68.0)0.544
Duration(years) since discharged from ETC≤3 years24(8.1)3(5.0)0.41426(7.8)1(4.0)0.487
> 3 years274(91.9)57(95.0)307(92.2)24(96.0)
Known Chronic diseaseYes37(12.4)9(15.0)0.58543(12.9)3(12.0)0.895
No261(87.6)51(85.0)290(87.1)22(88.0)