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Table 3 Multivariate models of explanatory variables for subsequent disability pension. Hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) are calculated using Cox regression

From: Does lung function predict the risk of disability pension? An 11-year register-based follow-up study

 Model 1*
Age and gender
HR (95% CI)
Model 2*
Education and BMI
HR (95% CI)
Model 3*
Co-morbidities 1 and 2 or more
HR (95% CI)
Model 4*
All mentioned
HR (95% CI)
Model 5*
All aforementioned, smoking and cotinine
HR (95% CI)
Study groups
 Controlsrefrefrefrefref
 Obstructive spirometry1.31 (0.79–2.17)1.41 (0.85–2.34)1.25 (0.76–2.06)1.20 (0.72–2.00)1.07 (0.64–1.78)
 Restrictive spirometry2.00 (1.26–3.18)1.52 (0.95–2.44)1.89 (1.19–3.01)1.50 (0.93–2.41)1.44 (0.89–2.32)
Age**1.12 (1.11–1.14)  1.11 (1.09–1.13)1.11 (1.09–1.13)
 Gender
  Men1.27 (1.03–1.57)  1.26 (1.02–1.56)1.28 (1.03–1.59)
  Womenref  refref
BMI
 < 25 ref refref
 25–29.9 1.38 (1.08–1.76) 1.17 (0.91–1.50)1.20 (0.93–1.54)
 ≥ 30 1.83 (1.39–2.42) 1.28 (0.96–1.70)1.34 (1.00–1.78)
Education
 High ref refref
 Mid-level 1.98 (1.51–2.60) 2.07 (1.57–2.72)1.99 (1.51–2.62)
 Basic 2.96 (2.22–3.93) 2.00 (1.50–2.67)1.86 (1.39–2.50)
Co-morbidities
 No  refrefref
 One  1.84 (1.42–2.38)1.66 (1.28–2.15)1.65 (1.27–2.13)
 Two or more  4.57 (3.54–5.90)3.40 (2.62–4.40)3.40 (2.62–4.41)
Cotinine
  < 100    ref
  > =100    1.37 (0.88–2.13)
Smoking
 Non-smoker    ref
 Ex-smoker    0.96 (0.73–1.27)
 Current-smoker    1.09 (0.69–1.72)
  1. * = adjusted for, ** = a continuous variable, BMI body mass index
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