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Table 2 Group antenatal care effectiveness outcomes (Aim 1)

From: An effectiveness-implementation hybrid type 1 trial assessing the impact of group versus individual antenatal care on maternal and infant outcomes in Malawi

ConstructOperational MeasureTimeSourcea
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H1. Less prematurity and mortality
Preterm Birth (Prim)< 37 weeks gestational age   H, S
Spontaneous abortionPregnancy loss < 20 weeks   H, S
StillbirthBaby born with no signs of life ≤28 weeks gestation [67]   H, S
Low birthweight< 2500 g, measured within 24 h of birth   H, S
Neonatal deathNewborn dies with 28 days after birth  H, S
Maternal mortalityDeath in pregnancy or ≤ 42 days of end of pregnancy  H, S
H2. More positive HIV prevention outcomes
Partner HIV Test (Prim)Proportion of partners tested during pregnancy   S
Women, HIV TestInitial HIV test; If seronegative, repeated in 3rd trimester   
HIV KnowledgeGeneral knowledge (5 items)   
PMTCT KnowledgeMother-to-child transmission (4 items)   
Sexual Health BehaviorsCondom use; Partner communication (5 yes/no items)S
H3. Optimal secondary outcomes
Antenatal & postnatal careAttendance; birth in a health facility (yes/no)   H, S
21 services received; 18 educational topics (modified)   
Satisfaction with Care10-items; 5-point Likert scale; Range 10–50, α =0.980   S
Pregnancy Knowledge25 items based on content (modified for this study)  S
Healthy Behaviors14 recommended behaviors (modified for this study)  S
Mental DistressSelf Reporting Questionnaire [68,69,70,71]; 20 items; α = 0.789S
AnemiaHemoglobin (Hb), HemoCue® (Hb < 11//dL) [72]T
HypertensionBlood pressure changes and symptoms H, S
Postpartum bleedingBleeding (> 500 ml); hemorrhage (> 1000 ml)   H, S
Exclusive BreastfeedingExclusive breastfeeding duration, # days   S
Family PlanningUsing a family planning method   S
Early repeat pregnancyNegative test and no reported pregnancy loss   S, T
H4. Exploratory: Successful transition in continuum of HIV care (subset of HIV-infected women)
WomenReceived ART medicationS
InfantInfant HIV test, status known  H, S
  1. aSource: H Health record, S Self-report survey, T Medical test