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Table 2 Hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease according to the change in smoking habit among atrial fibrillation male patients

From: Association of smoking cessation after atrial fibrillation diagnosis on the risk of cardiovascular disease: a cohort study of South Korean men

 Continual smokersQuittersSustained ex-smokersNever smokersp for trend
Cardiovascular disease
 Events9335110151 
 Person-years2407131233824666 
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.65 (0.44–0.97)0.76 (0.57–1.02)0.68 (0.52–0.90)0.020
Total stroke
 Events60206592 
 Person-years2541137435124871 
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.59 (0.35–0.99)0.72 (0.50–1.04)0.66 (0.46–0.93)0.047
Ischemic stroke
 Events46134464 
 Person-years2589139535684942 
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.50 (0.27–0.94)0.64 (0.42–0.99)0.61 (0.41–0.91)0.047
Hemorrhagic stroke
 Events63811 
 Person-years2687141436595117 
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.96 (0.23–4.00)1.00 (0.34–3.00)0.88 (0.31–2.54)0.805
Coronary heart disease
 Events44195379 
 Person-years2545134735274904 
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.75 (0.43–1.29)0.77 (0.51–1.17)0.74 (0.50–1.10)0.189
Acute myocardial infarction
 Events122420 
 Person-years2682141136745136 
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.27 (0.06–1.23)0.21 (0.06–0.67)0.67 (0.31–1.45)0.530
  1. Acronyms: aHR adjusted hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aHazard ratios calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis after adjustments for age, household income, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, Charlson comorbidity index, aspirin use, warfarin use, and index year
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