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Table 2 Hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease according to the change in smoking habit among atrial fibrillation male patients

From: Association of smoking cessation after atrial fibrillation diagnosis on the risk of cardiovascular disease: a cohort study of South Korean men

 Continual smokersQuittersSustained ex-smokersNever smokersp for trend
Cardiovascular disease
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.65 (0.44–0.97)0.76 (0.57–1.02)0.68 (0.52–0.90)0.020
Total stroke
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.59 (0.35–0.99)0.72 (0.50–1.04)0.66 (0.46–0.93)0.047
Ischemic stroke
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.50 (0.27–0.94)0.64 (0.42–0.99)0.61 (0.41–0.91)0.047
Hemorrhagic stroke
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.96 (0.23–4.00)1.00 (0.34–3.00)0.88 (0.31–2.54)0.805
Coronary heart disease
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.75 (0.43–1.29)0.77 (0.51–1.17)0.74 (0.50–1.10)0.189
Acute myocardial infarction
 aHR (95% CI)a1.00 (reference)0.27 (0.06–1.23)0.21 (0.06–0.67)0.67 (0.31–1.45)0.530
  1. Acronyms: aHR adjusted hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aHazard ratios calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis after adjustments for age, household income, alcohol consumption, physical exercise, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, Charlson comorbidity index, aspirin use, warfarin use, and index year