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Table 3 Health literacy across levels of person factors, general health, diabetes outcome, health behaviours and empowerment

From: Explaining variance in health literacy among people with type 2 diabetes: the association between health literacy and health behaviour and empowerment

 n (%) / mean (sd)aHL mean (sd)P value
Gendern (%)  
 Male207 (53)0.653 (1.43)0.149
 Female165 (43)0.881 (1.62) 
Educationn (%)  
 Compulsory comprehensive/upper secondary school196 (51)0.599 (1.50)0.001
 University/university college118 (30)1.195 (1.70) 
Age
  ≤ 73 years, n (%)187 (48)0.748 (1.47)0.922
  ≥ 74 years, n (%)188 (48)0.763 (1.57) 
General healthn (%)  
 Very good/good/fairly good315 (82)0.892 (1.55)0.002
 Bad/ very bad64 (17)0.235 (1.34) 
HbA1c (%)b
  ≤ 7.0%, n (%)132 (34)0.953 (1.51)0.319
  ≥ 7.1%, n (%)180 (46)0.778 (1.54) 
Health behaviour
 Physical activitycn (%)  
  Every or almost every day119 (31)0.772 (1.46)0.997
  Less activity235 (61)0.772 (1.52) 
  Health condition not compatible with physical activity17 (4)  
  Missing17 (4)  
Smokingd
 Daily or now and then16 (4)1.491 (1.42)0.052
 Never or former smoker361 (93)0.733 (1.52) 
 Missing11 (3)  
Alcohol consumptione
 No177 (46)0.740 (1.58)0.728
 Yes195 (50)0.795 (1.47) 
 Missing16 (4)  
Empowerment-related indicators
 Control of own healthn (%)  
  Difficult120 (31)0.229 (1.53)< 0.001
  Easy251 (65)1.044 (1.46) 
  Missing17 (4)  
Implement goals about own health
 Difficult204 (53)0.425 (1.32)< 0.001
 Easy166 (43)1.213 (1.63) 
 Missing18 (5)  
Take responsibility for own health
 Difficult127 (33)0.213 (1.32)< 0.001
 Easy243 (63)1.075 (1.54) 
 Missing18 (5)  
Participate actively in health communication
 Difficult111 (29)0.086 (1.20)< 0.001
 Easy223 (57)1.105 (1.61) 
 Missing54 (14)  
  1. HL: person-location estimates (logit values) of health literacy by means of the HLS-Q12 of Finbråten et al. [41]. Higher values indicate higher HL
  2. aContinuous data: mean (standard deviation [sd]); categorical data: frequencies, n (percentage [%])
  3. bHighest recommended HbA1c level in people with T2DM is 7% (53 mmol/mol)
  4. cHow often have you been physically active for at least 30 min during the last 30 days?
  5. dHow would you best describe your use of tobacco?
  6. eHow often did you drink alcohol during the last 30 days?
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