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Table 3 Health literacy across levels of person factors, general health, diabetes outcome, health behaviours and empowerment

From: Explaining variance in health literacy among people with type 2 diabetes: the association between health literacy and health behaviour and empowerment

  n (%) / mean (sd)a HL mean (sd) P value
Gender n (%)   
 Male 207 (53) 0.653 (1.43) 0.149
 Female 165 (43) 0.881 (1.62)  
Education n (%)   
 Compulsory comprehensive/upper secondary school 196 (51) 0.599 (1.50) 0.001
 University/university college 118 (30) 1.195 (1.70)  
Age
  ≤ 73 years, n (%) 187 (48) 0.748 (1.47) 0.922
  ≥ 74 years, n (%) 188 (48) 0.763 (1.57)  
General health n (%)   
 Very good/good/fairly good 315 (82) 0.892 (1.55) 0.002
 Bad/ very bad 64 (17) 0.235 (1.34)  
HbA1c (%)b
  ≤ 7.0%, n (%) 132 (34) 0.953 (1.51) 0.319
  ≥ 7.1%, n (%) 180 (46) 0.778 (1.54)  
Health behaviour
 Physical activityc n (%)   
  Every or almost every day 119 (31) 0.772 (1.46) 0.997
  Less activity 235 (61) 0.772 (1.52)  
  Health condition not compatible with physical activity 17 (4)   
  Missing 17 (4)   
Smokingd
 Daily or now and then 16 (4) 1.491 (1.42) 0.052
 Never or former smoker 361 (93) 0.733 (1.52)  
 Missing 11 (3)   
Alcohol consumptione
 No 177 (46) 0.740 (1.58) 0.728
 Yes 195 (50) 0.795 (1.47)  
 Missing 16 (4)   
Empowerment-related indicators
 Control of own health n (%)   
  Difficult 120 (31) 0.229 (1.53) < 0.001
  Easy 251 (65) 1.044 (1.46)  
  Missing 17 (4)   
Implement goals about own health
 Difficult 204 (53) 0.425 (1.32) < 0.001
 Easy 166 (43) 1.213 (1.63)  
 Missing 18 (5)   
Take responsibility for own health
 Difficult 127 (33) 0.213 (1.32) < 0.001
 Easy 243 (63) 1.075 (1.54)  
 Missing 18 (5)   
Participate actively in health communication
 Difficult 111 (29) 0.086 (1.20) < 0.001
 Easy 223 (57) 1.105 (1.61)  
 Missing 54 (14)   
  1. HL: person-location estimates (logit values) of health literacy by means of the HLS-Q12 of Finbråten et al. [41]. Higher values indicate higher HL
  2. aContinuous data: mean (standard deviation [sd]); categorical data: frequencies, n (percentage [%])
  3. bHighest recommended HbA1c level in people with T2DM is 7% (53 mmol/mol)
  4. cHow often have you been physically active for at least 30 min during the last 30 days?
  5. dHow would you best describe your use of tobacco?
  6. eHow often did you drink alcohol during the last 30 days?