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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression analyses of data on hardcore smokers among male current smokers aged 55–74 years old with histories of more than 30 pack-years of smoking, and their characteristics

From: Burden of male hardcore smokers and its characteristics among those eligible for lung cancer screening

VariableHardcore smoker OR (Univariate)Hardcore smoker OR (Multivariate)
Baseline characteristics
 Age, years1.06 (1.02–1.09)1.05 (1.01–1.09)
 BMI, kg/m20.95 (0.90–1.00)0.99 (0.93–1.05)
 Underlying disease
  Depression (vs. none)3.65 (1.09–12.23)6.55 (1.75–24.61)
  Chronic diseases (vs. none)1.03 (0.71–1.34) 
 Household income (vs. 4th quartile)
  1st quartile1.67 (0.99–2.82)1.03 (0.58–1.84)
  2nd quartile1.15 (0.65–2.03)0.78 (0.41–1.46)
  3rd quartile1.16 (0.66–2.03)0.98 (0.54–1.80)
 Education (vs. high school or higher)
  Elementary school or lower1.70 (1.15–2.51)1.50 (0.98–2.30)
  Middle school1.14 (0.74–1.77)0.96 (0.59–1.56)
 Occupation (vs. white collar job)
  Blue collar job1.61 (0.79–3.29) 
  Unemployed1.76 (0.83–3.74) 
 Marital status
  Single (vs. married/ cohabiting)1.36 (0.82–2.26) 
 FEV1/FVC (vs. ≥ 0.7)
  FEV1/FVC < 0.71.22 (0.84–1.78) 
Smoking and alcohol related factors
 Age at smoking initiation (vs. ≥26 years)
  age < 16 years1.99 (0.95–4.19)2.08 (0.89–4.85)
  16–20 years1.12 (0.58–2.18)1.13 (0.52–2.46)
  20–26 years1.31 (0.70–2.43)1.51 (0.71–3.17)
 Second-hand smoke at workplace (vs. none)1.22 (0.84–1.78) 
 Second-hand smoke at home (vs. none)0.80 (0.39–1.66) 
 No education on smoking cessation (vs. yes)4.78 (1.69–11.87)4.15 (1.30–13.22)
 Alcohol use (vs.never-drinker)
  0–1 time per week0.72 (0.39–1.33)0.96 (0.49–1.90)
  2–3 times per week0.79 (0.42–1.48)1.04 (0.49–2.19)
  ≥ 4 times per week1.36 (0.77–2.38)1.73 (0.91–3.27)
Life style factors
 Stress recognition (vs. hardly or a little)
  Sufficiently1.12 (0.73–1.72)1.37 (0.85–2.22)
  Extremely1.68 (1.06–2.69)1.93 (1.13–3.29)
 Number of days of intense physical activity
  None (vs. ≥ 1 day, per week)1.31 (0.90–1.92)0.94 (0.60–1.48)
 Moderate physical activity
  None (vs. ≥ 1 day, per week)1.33 (0.95–1.85)1.16 (0.78–1.71)
 Walking
  None (vs. ≥ 1 day, per week)1.18 (0.79–1.77) 
 Muscle strengthening exercises
  None (vs. ≥ 1 day, per week)1.75 (1.17–2.63)1.32 (0.82–2.12)
EQ-5D
  Mobility problems (vs. none)1.28 (0.91–1.80)1.05 (0.63–1.75)
  Self-care problems (vs. none)0.92 (0.49–1.72) 
  Usual activity problems (vs. none)1.36 (0.90–2.07)1.06 (0.56–2.00)
  Pain/discomfort problems (vs. none)1.08 (0.74–1.57) 
  Anxiety/depression problems (vs. none)1.20 (0.76–1.90) 
  1. Single includes divorced, bereaved, separated, and never-married; chronic disease includes hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus. EQ-5D EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire, FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FVC Forced vital capacity
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