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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of hardcore smokers among current male smokers aged 55–74 years old with histories of more than 30 pack-years of smoking

From: Burden of male hardcore smokers and its characteristics among those eligible for lung cancer screening

Variable All (N = 4,763,098)Hardcore smoker (N = 1,576,339)Non-hardcore smoker (N = 3,186,759)P-value
Agemean ± SD62.88 ± 0.2063.91 ± 0.3562.37 ± 0.250.0006
55 ≤ age < 601,487,173 (31.23)375,438 (23.82)1,111,735 (34.89)0.0052
60 ≤ age < 651,557,224 (32.69)507,820 (32.22)1,049,403 (32.93)
65 ≤ age < 701,016,798 (21.35)377,478 (23.95)639,320 (20.06)
70 ≤ age < 75701,902 (14.74)315,602 (20.02)386,300 (12.12)
BMI, kg/m2mean ± SD23.14 ± 0.1122.82 ± 0.2123.30 ± 0.130.0487
Household income1st quartile1,548,917 (33.24)600,812 (39.40)948,105 (30.25)0.1380
2nd quartile1,287,828 (27.64)391,740 (25.69)896,088 (28.59)
3rd quartile1,034,921 (22.21)315,490 (20.69)719,431 (22.95)
4th quartile787,801 (16.91)216,823 (14.22)570,978 (18.22)
EducationElementary school or lower1,984,579 (41.79)780,634 (49.61)1,203,944 (37.91)0.0149
Middle school1,083,487 (22.81)328,611 (20.88)754,877 (23.77)
High school or higher1,681,244 (35.40)464,265 (29.51)1,216,979 (38.32)
OccupationWhite collar job238,122 (5.03)55,322 (3.55)182,799 (5.76)0.3717
Blue collar job2,972,211 (62.84)973,748 (62.53)1,998,463 (62.99)
Unemployed1,519,481 (32.13)528,295 (33.92)991,186 (31.24)
MarriageMarried/cohabiting4,253,914 (90.30)1,377,576 (88.43)2,876,338 (91.23)0.2296
Single, never-married456,756 (9.70)180,293 (11.57)276,463 (8.77)
Underlying diseaseHypertension1,482,919 (31.13)534,463 (33.91)948,456 (29.76)0.2519
Diabetes mellitus929,758 (19.52)297,874 (18.90)631,884 (19.83)0.7799
Cardiovascular disease296,749 (6.23)94,423 (5.99)202,326 (6.35)0.8715
Dyslipidemia556,939 (11.69)165,662 (10.51)391,277 (12.28)0.5366
Cerebral vascular accident172,143 (3.61)69,577 (4.41)102,566 (3.22)0.4451
Depression64,651 (1.36)41,320 (2.62)23,332 (0.73)0.0240
FEV1/FVC< 0.71,572,220 (43.43)535,954 (46.77)1,036,267 (41.88)0.3029
≥ 0.72,048,217 (56.57)610,074 (53.23)1,438,143 (58.12)
  1. Data are presented as either means ± SD or as numbers and percentages, as appropriate. SD Standard deviation, PY Pack-year; Single includes divorced, bereaved, separated; Chronic disease includes hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus; FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FVC Forced vital capacity
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