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Table 3 Risk factors associated with Acute Diarrheal Disease outbreak in Pedda-Gujjula-Thanda tribal village, 2017 (n = 512)

From: A community-wide acute diarrheal disease outbreak associated with drinking contaminated water from shallow bore-wells in a tribal village, India, 2017

Risk FactorAttack rate ExposedAttack rate Non-exposedRR (95% CI)MLR analysis* Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Consumption of bore-well water source (vs canned water)190/480 (40%)1/32 (3%)12.7 (1.8–87.4)Excluded
Consumption of shallow-downhill bore-well water (vs all other drinking water sources) 149/224 (67%)42/288 (15%)4.6 (3.4–6.1)7.9 (4.7–13.2)
Report of visible contaminants like mud in drinking water65/94 (69%)126/418 (30%)2.3 (1.9–2.8)4.0 (2.1–7.6)
Practice of open defecation186/484 (38%)5/28 (18%)2.2 (1.0–4.8)Excluded§
Illiteracy131/252 (52%)52/188 (28%)1.9 (1.4–2.4)3.6 (3.6–10.1)
Kutcha house type174/457 (38%)17/55 (31%)1.2 (0.8–1.9)Excluded§
Housefly menace (Flies sighted in the house during the minimum 15 min-visit)39/95 (41%)152/417 (36)1.1 (0.9–1.5)Excluded§
Recent accumulation of water in or around house73/182 (40%)118/330 (36)1.1 (0.8–1.4)Excluded§
Use of narrow mouth container for household water storage29/80 (36%)162/432 (38%)0.9 (0.7–1.3)Excluded§
Deep bore-wells (vs all other drinking water sources) 6/38 (16%)185/474 (39%)0.4 (0.2–0.9)Excluded
Household water treatment24/154 (16%)167/358 (47%)0.3 (0.2–0.5)0.4 (0.2–0.7)
Good hand-washing practice11/101 (11%)180/411 (44%)0.2 (0.1–0.4)0.2 (0.1–0.5)
  1. *Multiple logistic regression analysis
  2. Five of 19 bore-wells were shallow and located on downhill slope, in close proximity to open defecation site; and two of 19 bore-wells were deep type
  3. Excluded from MLR analysis due to relatively negligible sample size of residents using canned water with a very broad 95% CI in bivariate analysis
  4. §Excluded from MLR analysis as the variable did not meet the statistical inclusion criteria (p < 0.25)
  5. Excluded from MLR analysis as the variable is multi-collinear with other bore-well variables
  6. Less than seven-year-old excluded (n = 440)