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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Current and former smokers among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First authorYearCityMean age ± SDSample sizeNo.boyNo. girlToolsGeographical areaWhere adolescents live (urban, rural)
Ayatollahi2004Shiraz16 ± 0.77113211320SRQEastUrban
Kelishadi2004IsfahanNA19509461004SRQCentralBoth
Mojahed2004Zahedan15.9 ± 1475216259SRQCentralUrban
Najafi2005RashtNA1474751723SRQCentralUrban
Vafaei2005TabrizNA1000NANASRQWestUrban
Heydari2007Tehran16.71093712381GYTSWestUrban
Najafi2007GuilanNA19271041886SRQNorthUrban
Barikani2008Tehran14.8 ± 1.4700374326SRQCentralUrban
Namakin2008Birjand16.3 ± 1.3123312330SRQCentralUrban
Ziaaddini2008KermanNA860346514SRQEastUrban
Mohtasham Amiri2009Rasht16.2 ± 0.9140014000SRQNorthUrban
Charkazi2010Zahedan15.9 ± 7380NANASRQCentralUrban
Emami2010Tehran17.53 ± 0.59456620692497SRQNorthUrban
Gharlipour Gharghani2010ShirazNA2442440SRQCentralUrban
Grarmaroudi2010Tehran16240012001200SRQNorthUrban
Moeini2010MalayerNA9009000SRQWestUrban
Mohammadpoorasl2010Tabriz16.28 ± 0.871785NANASRQWestUrban
Pasharavesh2010Kermanshah16.36 ± 1.17315003150GYTSWestUrban
Rahmanian2010JahromNA1145697448SRQSouthBoth
Ramezankhani2010Tehran14.69 ± 2.09452322722251SRQCentralUrban
Alaee2011Karaj16.5 ± 1.299447208239GYTSCentralUrban
Hamidzade Arbaby2011KhalkhalNA2602600SRQWestUrban
Ghavidel2012Nazarabad17400204196SRQNorthUrban
Mohammadkhani201210 provincesNA253812831255SRQNAUrban
Heydari2013TehranNA127112710SRQCentralUrban
Javadzade2013Isfahan17.72 ± 0.623823820SRQCentralUrban
Karimi2013Zarandieh16.21 ± 1.452502500SRQEastUrban
Nazarzadeh2013Zanjan17.2 ± 1.33523520SRQEastUrban
Barati2014Hamadan16.42 ± 0.898108100SRQWestUrban
Bidel2014Ilam16.2 ± 0.5100010000SRQWestUrban
Esmaielzadeh2014QazvinNA510271239SRQWestUrban
Khajehdaluee2014SarakhsNA943507436SRQWestBoth
Miri2014Birjand17.024 ± 0.89237123710SRQEastUrban
Mohammadi2014Babolsar15.3 ± 0.54504500SRQNorthBoth
Pirdehghan2014Yazd16.02 ± 0.9460273187GYTSEastUrban
Chaman2015Shahroud16.5 ± 1.14504500SRQEastUrban
Madani2015Bandar Abbas16 ± 1.34202910091020SRQSouthUrban
Meysamie2015Tehran16.21287715571320SRQCentralUrban
Rashid2015Tehran16.51022511511SRQCentralUrban
Kelishadi201630 provinces12.47 ± 3.3613,48668466640GSHSNABoth
Khoramdad2016Shiraz17750569181SQRCentralUrban
Fakharri2017TabrizNA1000460540MCMI-IIIWestUrban
Karimi2017Shiraz16.11 ± 1.168428420SRQCentralUrban
Mohamadzadeh2017IlamNA372199173SRQWestUrban
Mohammadi2017Marivan16.2 ± 0.254704700SRQWestUrban
Ataeiasl2018Tabriz15.48 ± 0.501133567566SRQWestUrban
Farshidi2018Bandar Abbas16.4 ± 1.14224220SRQSouthUrban
Jamshidi2018Ahvaz16.56 ± 15.02899450449SRQSouthUrban
Ansari2019ZahedanNA1094613481SRQEastUrban
  1. Global youth tobacco survey (GYTS), Self-report questionnaire (SRQ), Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III), Not available (NA)
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