Skip to main content

Table 4 Associations between school ethos and risk gambling. Odds ratios from two-level binary logistic regressions. n = 5123 students distributed across 46 upper secondary schools

From: School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden

 Empty modelModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
 OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Student level
 Gender
  Boy (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
  Girl 0.08***0.04–0.130.08***0.04–0.130.08***0.04–0.130.08***0.05–0.14
Family structure
 Two parents in the same household (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
 Other 1.46*1.05–2.021.45*1.05–2.011.45*1.05–2.011.42*1.03–1.96
Parental university education
 No parent (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
 At least one parent 0.59**0.42–0.820.60**0.43–0.830.60**0.43–0.830.65*0.47–0.90
Parental unemployment
 No parent (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
 At least one parent 1.220.69–2.171.230.69–2.171.230.70–2.181.270.72–2.24
Migration background
  ≥ 10 years in Sweden (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
  < 10 years in Sweden 1.120.69–1.821.170.72–1.911.170.72–1.921.200.74–1.96
School level
 % students with parents with post-secondary education   0.990.99–1.000.990.98–1.000.990.98–1.00
 % students with a foreign background     1.000.99–1.010.990.98–1.00
School ethos
 Weak (ref.)       1.00
 Intermediate       0.57*0.36–0.90
 Strong       0.40**0.22–0.69
 ICC15.0%4.6% 3.4% 3.5% 1.8% 
  1. ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05
\