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Table 3 Associations between school ethos and gambling. Odds ratios from two-level binary logistic regressions. n = 5123 students distributed across 46 upper secondary schools

From: School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden

 Empty modelModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
 OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Student level
 Gender
  Boy (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
  Girl 0.23***0.19–0.270.22***0.19–0.270.23***0.19–0.280.23***0.19–0.28
Family structure
 Two parents in the same household (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
 Other 1.150.97–1.371.150.96–1.371.150.96–1.371.140.96–1.35
Parental university education
 No parent (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
 At least one parent 0.860.71–1.030.870.72–1.040.860.72–1.040.890.74–1.07
Parental unemployment
 No parent (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
 At least one parent 0.970.68–1.370.970.68–1.370.970.68–1.380.980.69–1.39
Migration background
  ≥ 10 years in Sweden (ref.) 1.001.001.001.00
  < 10 years in Sweden 0.790.57–1.070.810.59–1.100.810.60–1.110.800.58–1.09
School level
 % students with parents with post-secondary education   0.99*0.99–1.000.99**0.98–1.000.99**0.99–1.00
 % students with a foreign background     1.000.99–1.010.990.99–1.00
School ethos
 Weak (ref.)       1.00
 Intermediate       1.020.74–1.40
 Strong       0.62**0.43–0.89
 ICC7.9%4.8% 3.9% 3.7% 2.6% 
  1. ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05
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