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Table 1 Descriptives. n = 5123 students distributed across 46 upper secondary schools

From: School ethos and adolescent gambling: a multilevel study of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden

Student leveln%  
 Gambling during the past 12 months70713.8  
Risk gambling
 Tried to reduce gambling1092.1  
 Felt restless or irritated when not able to gamble861.7  
 Lied about gambling691.4  
 At least one indicator of risk gambling1693.3  
Family structure
 Two parents in the same household328064.0  
Parental university education
 No parent170833.3  
 At least one parent341566.7  
Parental unemployment
 No parent480893.9  
 At least one parent3156.1  
Migration background
  ≥ 10 years in Sweden465190.8  
  < 10 years in Sweden4729.2  
School levelMeans.d.MinMax
School ethos46.14.534.854.3
 Weak (n = 1722)41.32.734.844.3
 Intermediate (n = 1743)
 Strong (n = 1658)51.21.648.154.3
 School ethos (std.)0.01.0−2.51.8
 % students with parents with post-secondary education51.625.17.086.3
 % students with a foreign background41.