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Table 5 QoL influencing factors among female older adults

From: Gender differences in quality of life among community-dwelling older adults in low- and middle-income countries: results from the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

 TotalChinaIndiaRussiaSouth AfricaGhana
β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)
Country (Ref: China)
 India0.56 (0.44)     
 Russia−1.24 (0.31)     
 South Africa− 2.95 (0.38)     
 Ghana−5.44 (0.39)     
Age group (Ref: 50–59)
 60–690.88 (0.19)1.09 (0.30)0.30 (0.41)0.83 (0.56)2.05 (0.51)†−0.22 (0.62)
 70–791.60 (0.23)2.67 (0.37)0.28 (0.57)1.75 (0.63)†2.32 (0.62)†−0.52 (0.68)
 80 and above2.22 (0.37)3.88 (0.64)−0.36 (0.94)3.33 (0.90)†5.29 (0.94)†−1.60 (0.95)
Education (Ref: Less than primary)
 Primary only−0.19 (0.26)0.29 (0.36)−0.80 (0.60)0.89 (1.27)−0.46 (0.63)0.10 (0.83)
 Secondary only−0.03 (0.28)−0.30 (0.38)− 0.21 (0.87)2.08 (1.16)0.85 (0.71)0.50 (1.69)
 High school only0.07 (0.32)0.21 (0.45)−0.04 (1.01)1.04 (1.16)1.05 (1.08)0.11 (0.84)
 College and above0.98 (0.44)*1.33 (0.78)0.99 (1.38)1.77 (1.25)1.46 (1.31)−0.46 (1.76)
Health insurance0.65 (0.25)*0.40 (0.37)−1.73 (0.97)2.32 (3.30)0.53 (0.62)1.80 (0.50)
Income5.17 (0.22)5.21 (0.35)4.68 (0.50)4.13 (0.64)5.44 (0.60)5.96 (0.70)
Living environment0.58 (0.11)0.84 (0.21)0.41 (0.21)*0.76 (0.47)1.22 (0.29)−0.28 (0.34)
Cognitive function0.83 (0.11)0.51 (0.15)0.73 (0.28)*0.97 (0.27)1.15 (0.25)1.23 (0.34)
Physical function−0.34 (0.01)−0.40 (0.01)− 0.31 (0.01)−0.35 (0.02)− 0.30 (0.01)−0.36 (0.02)
Arthritis−2.34 (0.19)−2.34 (0.28)−2.56 (0.46)−3.38 (0.43)−1.79 (0.50)−0.42 (0.63)
Hypertension−0.04 (0.17)0.62 (0.25)*−0.07 (0.38)−1.43 (0.43)0.44 (0.48)−0.83 (0.47)
Diabetes−2.46 (0.31)−3.57 (0.49)−1.95 (0.72)−1.84 (0.68)− 1.69 (0.70)*−1.03 (1.13)
Married1.50 (0.20)1.92 (0.38)1.62 (0.40)1.89 (0.53)1.44 (0.48)0.02 (0.54)
Family support0.20 (0.18)0.31 (0.28)0.26 (0.39)−0.53 (0.51)1.45 (0.63)*−0.22 (0.48)
Community support−0.32 (0.42)−2.17 (0.89)*−1.01 (0.63)2.72 (1.25)*3.17 (1.66)0.09 (1.19)
Social cohesion index0.25 (0.02)0.28 (0.04)0.30 (0.04)0.38 (0.06)0.07 (0.04)0.26 (0.04)
Living arrangements1.66 (0.27)1.90 (0.45)−1.10 (1.10)2.04 (0.57)0.72 (0.72)2.18 (0.79)
  1. Note. * < 0.05;  < 0.01