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Table 2 QoL influencing factors among older adults in five LMICs

From: Gender differences in quality of life among community-dwelling older adults in low- and middle-income countries: results from the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

 Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)β (SE)
Country (Ref: China)
 India−3.42 (0.18)−6.69 (0.33)0.62 (0.31)*−0.03 (0.31)
 Russia−3.36 (0.22)−5.34 (0.24)− 0.97 (0.22)−1.15 (0.22)
 South Africa−3.71 (0.23)−6.63 (0.29)−2.55 (0.26)−3.70 (0.28)
 Ghana−6.66 (0.21)−7.64 (0.27)−3.44 (0.25)−5.40 (0.28)
Age group (Ref: 50–59)
 60–69−1.93 (0.16)− 1.32 (0.16)0.42 (0.14)0.55 (0.14)
 70–79−4.06 (0.18)−3.02 (0.18)1.00 (0.16)1.28 (0.17)
 80 and above−7.49 (0.29)−5.96 (0.28)1.56 (0.26)2.14 (0.27)
Female−2.34 (0.14)−1.80 (0.13)−0.44 (0.12)− 0.03 (0.13)
Education (Ref: Less than primary)
 Primary only 0.43 (0.20)*−0.21 (0.18)−0.21 (0.17)
 Secondary only 1.08 (0.21)−0.09 (0.19)− 0.07 (0.19)
 High school only 2.27 (0.23)−0.05 (0.21)−0.08 (0.21)
 College and above 4.22 (0.31)0.87 (0.28)0.68 (0.28)*
Health insurance 0.75 (0.21)0.57 (0.19)0.47 (0.19)*
Income 6.41 (0.18)5.16 (0.16)5.06 (0.16)
Living environment 0.57 (0.09)0.56 (0.08)0.64 (0.08)
Cognitive function  1.02 (0.08)0.89 (0.08)
Physical function  −0.36 (0.00)−0.35 (0.00)
Arthritis  −2.32 (0.15)− 2.39 (0.14)
Hypertension  0.02 (0.12)−0.01 (0.12)
Diabetes  −2.35 (0.23)−2.31 (0.23)
Married   1.05 (0.16)
Family support   0.09 (0.13)
Community support   −0.52 (0.31)
Social cohesion index   0.23 (0.01)
Living arrangements   1.23 (0.21)
  1. Note. * < 0.05;  < 0.01