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Table 1 Characteristics of men by race/nationality (n = 968)

From: Relationship between sleep and obesity among U.S. and South Korean college students

Demographics and Health Behaviors Whites
(n = 188)
Blacks
(n = 196)
Koreans
(n = 584)
p value
% % %
Years in undergraduate school     <.001
 1 year 12.8 41.0 28.9  
 2 years 12.2 24.1 25.7  
 3 years 24.5 16.9 25.0  
 4 years 33.0 11.3 17.6  
 ≥ 5 years 17.6 6.7 2.7  
General health     <.001
 Excellent 17.1 13.4 13.0  
 Very good 45.5 38.1 30.9  
 Good 31.6 38.1 31.4  
 Fair 5.9 10.3 24.7  
 Poor 0.5 1.0 4.8  
Body mass indexa     .003
 Underweight 1.1 1.0 1.0  
 Normal weight 52.1 47.5 39.6  
 Overweight 33.0 35.7 33.2  
 Obesity 13.8 15.8 26.2  
Sleep durationb     <.001
 Short sleep (< 7 h/night) 39.0 59.2 46.6  
 Normal sleep (7–9 h/night) 50.3 35.7 47.6  
 Long sleep (> 9 h/night) 10.7 5.1 5.8  
Having trouble sleeping 14.4 13.3 4.8 <.001
Having a sleep disorder 3.2 4.6 2.1 .163
Depression 23.5 27.0 34.9 .005
Current smoker 13.4 2.1 30.9 <.001
Alcohol use in last 30 days     <.001
 0 days 10.6 51.5 8.2  
 1–9 days 47.3 39.8 55.8  
 ≥ 10 days 42.0 8.7 36.0  
Daily fruits and vegetables intake     <.001
 0 servings 3.2 10.2 15.9  
 1–2 servings 73.9 60.7 70.7  
 ≥ 3 servings 22.9 29.1 13.4  
Weekly moderate-intensity exercise for ≥10 min     <.001
 0 days 1.1 14.3 12.8  
 1–2 days 26.6 28.1 25.7  
 ≥ 3 days 72.3 57.7 61.5  
Weekly vigorous-intensity exercise for ≥10 min     .030
 0 days 5.3 12.8 9.8  
 1–2 days 23.9 28.1 30.3  
 ≥ 3 days 70.7 59.2 59.9  
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Days of getting enough sleep to feel rested in the morning in past 7 days 3.58 (2.11)b 2.99 (2.39)c 2.71 (1.78)c,d <.05
  1. The percentages may not add up to 100% because of no responses or rounding errors
  2. Only one category for dichotomous variables is presented to eliminate redundancy in the table
  3. aUnderweight (BMI < 18.5), normal (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0), overweight (25.0 ≤ BMI < 30.0), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0) for whites and blacks. Underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23.0), overweight (23.0 ≤ BMI < 25.0), and obese (BMI ≥ 25.0) for Koreans
  4. P values are based on a chi-square test for categorical variables and an ANOVA for continuous data. b-d Values with different superscripts were significantly different across racial/national groups in the Scheffe test after ANOVA