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Table 5 Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of indirect maternal mortality causes by socio-demographic characteristics

From: Maternal mortality by socio-demographic characteristics and cause of death in South Africa: 2007–2015

VariablesTuberculosis OR (95% CI)HIV and related OR (95% CI)Viral diseases OR (95% CI)Immune system disorders OR (95% CI)Other ill-defined OR (95% CI)Accidental injury OR (95% CI)Event of undetermined intent OR (95% CI)Miscellaneous indirect OR (95% CI)
Age group (years)
 10–141(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 15–190.8(0.3–2.8)0.5(0.2–1.5)0.5(0.3–1.0)1.0(0.4–3.2)0.4(0.2–0.7)
 20–241.9(0.7–6.2)0.2(0.1–0.7)0.3(0.1–0.6)0.7(0.2–2.0)0.3(0.2–0.6)
 25–292.6(1.1–8.8)0.4(0.1–1.1)0.2(0.1–0.4)0.3(0.1–1.2)0.4(0.2–0.7)
 30–342.9(1.2–9.6)0.3(0.1–0.9)0.1(0.1–0.3)0.2(0.1–0.9)0.4(0.2–0.7)
 35–392.7(1.1–8.9)0.4(0.1–1.2)0.1(0.0–0.3)0.2(0.0–0.7)1.2(0.5–3.7)
 40+2.1(0.8–7.0)0.9(0.4–2.6)0.3(0.1–0.6)0.3(0.1–1.2)0.5(0.3–0.9)
Province of death
 Western Cape1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Eastern Cape1.2(0.6–2.4)0.4(0.3–0.5)1.3(0.8–2.1)1.4(0.7–3.0)0.4(0.2–0.7)0.5(0.3–0.8)0.9(0.5–1.9)1.9(1.2–3.2)
 Northern Cape0.4(0.1–1.4)0.8(0.5–1.3)0.6(0.2–1.5)0.9(0.2–2.7)0.6(0.2–1.3)0.7(0.3–1.2)0.1(0.0–0.7)0.6(0.5–0.8)
 Free State1.2(0.6–2.4)0.2(0.1–0.3)0.6(0.3–1.1)2.2(1.1–4.7)0.3(0.1–0.6)0.3(0.2–0.5)0.7(0.3–1.6)0.8(0.5–1.2)
 KwaZulu-Natal1.5(0.8–2.9)0.6(0.5–0.8)1.2(0.8–2.0)1.4(0.7–2.8)0.4(0.3–0.7)0.5(0.4–0.8)0.7(0.3–1.3)0.8(0.6–1.1)
 North West0.8(0.3–1.7)0.3(0.2–0.5)1.3(0.7–2.1)2.4(1.2–5.0)0.4(0.2–0.7)0.2(0.1–0.4)1.2(0.6–2.4)0.6(0.5–0.8)
 Gauteng0.7(0.4–1.4)0.3(0.2–0.4)0.8(0.5–1.3)1.6(0.9–3.3)0.6(0.3–0.9)0.5(0.3–0.7)1.1(0.6–2.0)0.5(0.4–0.8)
 Mpumalanga0.8(0.4–1.6)0.3(0.2–0.5)1.1(0.6–1.9)2.4(1.2–5.1)0.3(0.1–0.6)0.4(0.2–0.6)0.1(0.0–0.5)0.6(0.4–0.7)
 Limpopo0.9(0.5–1.9)0.2(0.1–0.3)1.2(0.7–2.0)1.8(0.9–3.9)0.5(0.3–0.9)0.4(0.2–0.6)0.4(0.1–0.9)0.8(0.6–1.0)
 Other1.4(0.8–7.9)0.0(0.0–0.0)1.2(0.0–6.0)5.0(0.7–20.9)0.4(0.0–2.3)0.3(0.0–1.5)1.2(0.0–7.0)0.4(0.1–1.4)
Place of death
 Health care facility1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Home1.5(1.0–2.1)0.4(0.3–0.5)0.3(0.2–0.5)0.8(0.5–1.1)8.5(6.1–11.8)3.2(2.2–4.4)1.9(1.1–3.3)1.7(1.4–2.0)
 Other0.5(0.3–0.8)0.3(0.2–0.4)0.4(0.3–0.6)0.4(0.2–0.6)6.7(4.9–9.0)11.0(8.8–13.8)7.3(5.3–10.1)1.5(1.3–1.7)
Occupation
 Non-professionala1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Professional0.5(0.1–1.4)0.4(0.2–0.8)0.4(0.1–0.9)0.9(0.4–1.9)0.6(0.2–1.3)1.8(1.0–2.9)0.6(0.1–1.8)1.4(1.0–1.9)
 Semi-professional1.8(1.2–2.6)1.0(0.8–1.3)1.0(0.6–1.4)1.2(0.8–1.8)0.4(0.2–0.8)1.4(1.0–2.0)1.2(0.6–2.0)1.1(0.9–1.4)
 Unspecified0.8(0.5–1.2)0.6(0.5–0.8)0.8(0.6–1.0)0.9(0.7–1.3)0.3(0.1–0.5)1.2(0.9–1.6)0.6(0.3–1.0)0.8(0.7–1.0)
Education
 None1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Primary0.6(0.3–1.2)0.9(0.6–1.5)1.7(0.9–3.8)0.9(0.5–2.0)0.7(0.3–1.5)1.0(0.5–2.4)0.9(0.3–2.8)0.7(0.5–0.9)
 High School0.5(0.2–0.9)1.1(0.7–1.8)1.2(0.6–2.6)0.8(0.4–1.6)0.8(0.4–1.8)1.4(0.7–3.0)0.9(0.3–2.7)0.6(0.5–0.9)
 University0.3(0.1–0.7)0.9(0.5–1.5)1.4(0.7–3.2)0.7(0.3–1.5)1.0(0.4–2.2)1.8(0.9–4.1)0.8(0.3–2.6)0.7(0.5–1.0)
 Unspecified0.5(0.2–0.8)0.9(0.6–1.4)1.4(0.7–3.0)0.8(0.4–1.7)0.7(0.3–1.5)0.7(0.3–1.5)0.5(0.2–1.5)0.6(0.4–0.8)
Marital status
 Unmarried1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Married0.6(0.4–0.9)0.6(0.4–0.7)0.7(0.5–0.9)0.5(0.4–0.8)0.9(0.6–1.2)1.2(0.9–1.6)1.1(0.7–1.7)0.8(0.7–1.0)
 Unspecified1.1(0.7–1.6)1.1(0.9–1.4)1.1(0.8–1.5)1.0(0.7–1.3)1.0(0.7–1.5)0.5(0.3–0.7)0.5(0.3–0.9)0.8(0.7–1.0)
  1. μ: age for tuberculosis, viral diseases and immune system disorders was left out because there was not enough data to be included in the model for logistic regression analysis
  2. aThis category is classified by StatsSA as inclusive of armed forces, occupation unspecified and not elsewhere classified
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