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Table 4 Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of direct maternal mortality causes by socio-demographic characteristics

From: Maternal mortality by socio-demographic characteristics and cause of death in South Africa: 2007–2015

VariablesAbortion OR (95% CI)Hypertensive disorders OR (95% CI)Other maternal disorders OR (95% CI)Maternal care conditions OR (95% CI)Complications of labour OR (95% CI)Complications related to puerperium OR (95% CI)Haemorrhage OR (95% CI)Sepsis OR (95% CI)Maternal infectious and parasitic diseases OR (95% CI)Other ill-defined OR (95% CI)Miscellaneous direct OR (95% CI)
Age group (years)
 10–141(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 15–191.3(0.6–3.5)0.8(0.5–1.3)0.5(0.2–1.2)1.1(0.4–4.0)2.0(0.6–12.6)2.6(0.9–11.0)3.0(0.9–19.0)1.7(0.7–4.9)2.5(1.2–6.1)1.0(0.6–1.7)0.5(0.2–1.5)
 20–241.5(0.7–4.0)0.6(0.4–0.9)0.5(0.2–1.1)0.8(0.3–2.8)2.0(0.6–12.3)1.8(0.7–7.7)3.1(0.9–19.1)1.8(0.8–5.4)3.3(1.6–7.9)1.1(0.7–1.9)0.5(0.2–1.4)
 25–291.4(0.7–3.8)0.4(0.3–0.7)0.5(0.2–1.0)0.8(0.3–2.9)2.5(0.8–15.7)1.1(0.4–4.8)2.9(0.9–17.7)1.5(0.7–4.5)4.1(2.0–9.9)1.1(0.7–1.9)0.4(0.1–1.1)
 30–341.6(0.7–4.2)0.4(0.2–0.6)0.4(0.2–0.9)1.2(0.5–4.1)2.5(0.8–15.8)1.1(0.4–4.7)3.6(1.1–22.3)1.3(0.5–3.8)3.7(1.8–9.0)1.1(0.7–1.9)0.4(0.2–1.2)
 35–391.3(0.6–3.6)0.5(0.3–0.7)0.4(0.2–1.0)1.5(0.6–5.2)2.9(0.9–18.2)1.3(0.5–5.7)3.2(1.0–19.9)1.2(0.5–3.7)3.1(1.5–7.5)1.0(0.6–1.8)0.5(0.2–1.3)
 40+0.7(0.3–2.0)0.2(0.1–0.4)0.4(0.2–1.0)0.9(0.3–3.2)1.1(0.3–7.5)0.7(0.2–3.3)2.7(0.8–16.7)0.5(0.2–1.7)2.2(1.1–5.5)0.7(0.4–1.3)0.1(0.0–0.5)
Province of death
 Western Cape1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Eastern Cape1.0(0.7–1.4)1.2(0.9–1.6)1.2(0.8–2.0)2.1(1.1–4.0)1.5(0.9–2.5)0.5(0.4–0.8)3.4(2.0–6.4)5.9(3.0–13.3)1.1(0.9–1.5)1.1(0.9–1.4)0.2(0.1–0.4)
 Northern Cape0.7(0.3–1.4)1.2(0.8–1.8)0.6(0.2–1.5)2.4(1.0–5.5)0.3(0.0–1.1)0.9(0.5–1.6)2.4(1.0–5.4)3.5(1.3–9.4)0.9(0.6–1.4)1.5(1.0–2.1)0.6(0.2–1.2)
 Free State0.9(0.5–1.3)1.4(1.0–1.8)1.3(0.8–2.2)1.5(0.8–3.2)1.2(0.7–2.2)0.8(0.5–1.2)2.4(1.3–4.7)4.3(2.1–10.1)1.1(0.8–1.5)1.5(1.1–1.9)0.4(0.2–0.7)
 KwaZulu-Natal1.2(0.8–1.7)0.8(0.6–1.1)1.5(0.9–2.3)1.9(1.0–3.6)1.1(0.7–1.8)0.4(0.2–0.6)2.6(1.5–4.9)5.1(2.6–11.6)1.4(1.1–1.7)1.1(0.9–1.4)0.3(0.2–0.6)
 North West0.8(0.5–1.3)1.3(1.0–1.8)1.3(0.8–2.3)2.3(1.2–4.5)1.3(0.8–2.4)0.7(0.4–1.0)3.4(1.9–6.5)4.4(2.1–10.2)1.1(0.8–1.5)1.4(1.1–1.8)0.5(0.2–0.8)
 Gauteng1.4(1.0–2.0)1.1(0.8–1.4)1.0(0.7–1.7)1.9(1.1–3.6)1.4(0.9–2.3)1.0(0.7–1.4)3.0(1.7–5.5)3.7(1.9–8.3)1.0(0.8–1.3)1.4(1.1–1.7)0.5(0.3–0.9)
 Mpumalanga1.2(0.8–1.8)1.3(1.0–1.7)1.3(0.8–2.2)2.2(1.1–4.3)0.9(0.5–1.7)0.4(0.3–0.7)3.7(2.1–7.0)5.0(2.5–11.5)1.2(0.9–1.6)1.5(1.1–1.9)0.2(0.1–0.4)
 Limpopo1.3(0.9–2.0)1.4(1.1–1.8)1.7(1.0–2.7)2.8(1.5–5.4)1.6(1.0–2.8)0.4(0.3–0.7)3.6(2.0–6.7)4.8(2.4–11.1)0.9(0.7–1.2)1.0(0.8–1.3)0.3(0.1–0.5)
 Other2.8(0.9–7.3)0.8(0.2–2.4)1.0(0.0–5.2)6.4(1.4–21.3)1.1(0.0–5.5)1.0(0.1–3.7)3.9(0.6–15.1)7.2(1.0–30.8)0.6(0.0–2.0)0.8(0.2–2.3)0.0(0.0–0.0)
Place of death
 Health care facility1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Home1.0(0.8–1.3)0.7(0.6–0.8)0.4(0.3–0.6)0.4(0.2–0.7)0.5(0.3–0.8)0.8(0.5–1.1)0.9(0.7–1.2)1.3(1.0–1.6)0.5(0.4–0.6)1.1(0.9–1.3)5.5(4.0–7.7)
 Other1.5(1.2–1.7)0.9(0.7–1.0)0.6(0.5–0.8)0.9(0.6–1.1)1.3(1.0–1.6)0.6(0.4–0.8)1.1(0.9–1.4)0.5(0.4–0.7)0.4(0.3–0.5)0.6(0.5–0.7)3.6(2.7–4.8)
Occupation
 Non-professionala1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Professional0.8(0.5–1.2)0.9(0.6–1.2)1.7(1.1–2.6)1.0(0.5–1.7)1.1(0.6–1.9)1.1(0.6–1.8)0.5(0.2–0.9)0.5(0.2–1.1)0.8(0.6–1.2)1.4(1.1–1.8)0.4(0–1.1.2)
 Semi-professional0.9(0.6–1.1)0.8(0.6–1.0)0.9(0.6–1.3)0.6(0.4–1.0)0.9(0.6–1.3)0.8(0.6–1.2)0.6(0.4–0.9)0.9(0.6–1.3)1.2(1.0–1.5)0.8(0.7–1.0)1.2(0.7–1.8)
 Unspecified0.5(0.4–0.7)1.0(0.8–1.1)0.8(0.6–1.1)0.8(0.6–1.1)1.0(0.7–1.3)0.7(0.5–0.9)0.7(0.6–1.0)1.4(1.1–1.7)1.7(1.5–1.9)1.1(0.9–1.2)0.9(0.6–1.4)
Education
 None1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Primary0.9(0.6–1.5)0.8(0.6–1.2)0.7(0.4–1.3)1.1(0.6–2.3)0.9(0.4–1.9)0.9(0.4–2.0)1.5(0.8–3.1)0.7(0.4–1.2)1.4(0.9–2.1)1.2(0.8–1.6)0.7(0.3–2.0)
 High School0.9(0.5–1.4)1.0(0.7–1.4)0.9(0.5–1.6)1.0(0.6–2.1)1.0(0.5–2.0)1.1(0.6–2.3)1.4(0.8–2.7)0.6(0.4–1.0)1.3(0.9–1.9)1.1(0.8–1.5)0.9(0.4–2.2)
 University0.8(0.5–1.3)1.0(0.7–1.6)1.0(0.5–1.9)1.0(0.5–2.1)1.3(0.7–2.8)1.5(0.8–3.3)1.3(0.7–2.7)0.4(0.2–0.7)0.8(0.5–1.3)1.2(0.8–1.6)0.9(0.4–2.4)
 Unspecified0.8(0.5–1.2)1.1(0.8–1.6)1.0(0.6–1.8)0.9(0.5–1.8)0.9(0.5–1.8)1.5(0.8–3.0)1.4(0.8–2.8)0.7(0.4–1.2)1.4(1.0–2.1)1.2(0.9–1.6)0.6(0.3–1.6)
Marital status
 Unmarried1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)1(Ref)
 Married0.9(0.7–1.1)1.2(1.0–1.4)1.3(1.0–1.6)1.1(0.8–1.4)1.2(0.9–1.5)1.5(1.2–1.9)1.3(1.0–1.6)0.8(0.6–1.0)0.9(0.8–1.0)1.1(0.9–1.2)1.0(0.7–1.4)
 Unspecified0.8(0.6–1.0)1.2(1.0–1.3)1.1(0.8–1.4)1.1(0.8–1.5)0.8(0.6–1.1)1.0(0.8–1.3)0.9(0.7–1.2)1.0(0.7–1.3)1.0(0.9–1.2)0.9(0.8–1.1)0.9(0.6–1.4)
  1. aThis category is classified by StatsSA as inclusive of armed forces, occupation unspecified and not elsewhere classified
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