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Table 1 Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, and drug injection-related and sexual behaviors by gender among all participants at their first visit in Aristotle (2012-2013, N=3320 People Who Inject Drugs)

From: High-risk behaviors and their association with awareness of HIV status among participants of a large-scale prevention intervention in Athens, Greece

 Gender  
MaleFemaleOverallp-value
N (%)N (%)N (%) 
Origin   < 0.001
 Other479 (17.1)48 (9.4)527 (15.9) 
 Greek2327 (82.9)465 (90.6)2792 (84.1) 
Education, highest level completed   < 0.001
 Up to Primary811 (29.2)96 (18.8)907 (27.6) 
 Middle/Secondary School871 (31.4)133 (26.0)1004 (30.5) 
 High school799 (28.8)173 (33.8)972 (29.6) 
 University294 (10.6)110 (21.5)404 (12.3) 
Homeless   0.073
 not homeless1862 (66.5)320 (62.4)2182 (65.9) 
 homeless in the last year, not now294 (10.5)70 (13.6)364 (11.0) 
 homeless now642 (22.9)123 (24.0)765 (23.1) 
Ever having health insurance   0.021
 No1813 (64.9)304 (59.6)2117 (64.1) 
 Yes979 (35.1)206 (40.4)1185 (35.9) 
Ever participated in OMT   < 0.001
 No2110 (76.1)312 (61.7)2422 (73.9) 
 Yes661 (23.9)194 (38.3)855 (26.1) 
Ever been in prison   < 0.001
 No1382 (49.4)311 (60.9)1693 (51.2) 
 Yes1413 (50.6)200 (39.1)1613 (48.8) 
Main substance of use   < 0.001
 Heroin2318 (83.2)381 (74.7)2699 (81.9) 
 Cocaine361 (13.0)101 (19.8)462 (14.0) 
 Buprenorphine23 (0.8)2 (0.4)25 (0.8) 
 Sisha/Methamph16 (0.6)1 (0.2)17 (0.5) 
 Speedball67 (2.4)25 (4.9)92 (2.8) 
Frequency of injecting drugs in past 12 months   0.005
 More than once a day877 (31.3)136 (26.5)1013 (30.6) 
 Once a day218 (7.8)29 (5.7)247 (7.5) 
 More than once a week641 (22.9)121 (23.6)762 (23.0) 
 More than once a month416 (14.9)73 (14.2)489 (14.8) 
 Less than once a month647 (23.1)154 (30.0)801 (24.2) 
Receptive syringe sharing on last injection   0.131
 No2080 (79.8)364 (76.8)2444 (79.4) 
 Yes525 (20.2)110 (23.2)635 (20.6) 
Receptive syringe sharing in past 12 months   0.166
 Never1867 (67.1)324 (63.7)2191 (66.5) 
 Rarely691 (24.8)147 (28.9)838 (25.4) 
 About half of the times136 (4.9)19 (3.7)155 (4.7) 
 Most of the times, Always90 (3.2)19 (3.7)109 (3.3) 
Dividing drugs with a syringe someone else had used before about half of the times or more in the past 12 months   0.198
 No1774 (63.2)309 (60.2)2083 (62.8) 
 Yes1032 (36.8)204 (39.8)1236 (37.2) 
Frequency of condom use   < 0.001
 Always/Usually yes1251 (56.7)165 (37.6)1416 (53.5) 
 Never/Usually no957 (43.3)274 (62.4)1231 (46.5) 
 Median (IQR)Median (IQR)Median (IQR)p-value
Median age in years34.6 (30.3, 41.1)32.7 (28.9, 38.5)34.2 (30.1, 40.7)< 0.001
Duration of injection drug use in years13.0 (6.0, 19.0)11.0 (6.0, 17.0)12.0 (6.0, 18.0)0.005
  1. IQR interquartile range, OMT opioid maintenance treatment
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