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Table 1 Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, and drug injection-related and sexual behaviors by gender among all participants at their first visit in Aristotle (2012-2013, N=3320 People Who Inject Drugs)

From: High-risk behaviors and their association with awareness of HIV status among participants of a large-scale prevention intervention in Athens, Greece

  Gender   
Male Female Overall p-value
N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Origin     < 0.001
 Other 479 (17.1) 48 (9.4) 527 (15.9)  
 Greek 2327 (82.9) 465 (90.6) 2792 (84.1)  
Education, highest level completed     < 0.001
 Up to Primary 811 (29.2) 96 (18.8) 907 (27.6)  
 Middle/Secondary School 871 (31.4) 133 (26.0) 1004 (30.5)  
 High school 799 (28.8) 173 (33.8) 972 (29.6)  
 University 294 (10.6) 110 (21.5) 404 (12.3)  
Homeless     0.073
 not homeless 1862 (66.5) 320 (62.4) 2182 (65.9)  
 homeless in the last year, not now 294 (10.5) 70 (13.6) 364 (11.0)  
 homeless now 642 (22.9) 123 (24.0) 765 (23.1)  
Ever having health insurance     0.021
 No 1813 (64.9) 304 (59.6) 2117 (64.1)  
 Yes 979 (35.1) 206 (40.4) 1185 (35.9)  
Ever participated in OMT     < 0.001
 No 2110 (76.1) 312 (61.7) 2422 (73.9)  
 Yes 661 (23.9) 194 (38.3) 855 (26.1)  
Ever been in prison     < 0.001
 No 1382 (49.4) 311 (60.9) 1693 (51.2)  
 Yes 1413 (50.6) 200 (39.1) 1613 (48.8)  
Main substance of use     < 0.001
 Heroin 2318 (83.2) 381 (74.7) 2699 (81.9)  
 Cocaine 361 (13.0) 101 (19.8) 462 (14.0)  
 Buprenorphine 23 (0.8) 2 (0.4) 25 (0.8)  
 Sisha/Methamph 16 (0.6) 1 (0.2) 17 (0.5)  
 Speedball 67 (2.4) 25 (4.9) 92 (2.8)  
Frequency of injecting drugs in past 12 months     0.005
 More than once a day 877 (31.3) 136 (26.5) 1013 (30.6)  
 Once a day 218 (7.8) 29 (5.7) 247 (7.5)  
 More than once a week 641 (22.9) 121 (23.6) 762 (23.0)  
 More than once a month 416 (14.9) 73 (14.2) 489 (14.8)  
 Less than once a month 647 (23.1) 154 (30.0) 801 (24.2)  
Receptive syringe sharing on last injection     0.131
 No 2080 (79.8) 364 (76.8) 2444 (79.4)  
 Yes 525 (20.2) 110 (23.2) 635 (20.6)  
Receptive syringe sharing in past 12 months     0.166
 Never 1867 (67.1) 324 (63.7) 2191 (66.5)  
 Rarely 691 (24.8) 147 (28.9) 838 (25.4)  
 About half of the times 136 (4.9) 19 (3.7) 155 (4.7)  
 Most of the times, Always 90 (3.2) 19 (3.7) 109 (3.3)  
Dividing drugs with a syringe someone else had used before about half of the times or more in the past 12 months     0.198
 No 1774 (63.2) 309 (60.2) 2083 (62.8)  
 Yes 1032 (36.8) 204 (39.8) 1236 (37.2)  
Frequency of condom use     < 0.001
 Always/Usually yes 1251 (56.7) 165 (37.6) 1416 (53.5)  
 Never/Usually no 957 (43.3) 274 (62.4) 1231 (46.5)  
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR) p-value
Median age in years 34.6 (30.3, 41.1) 32.7 (28.9, 38.5) 34.2 (30.1, 40.7) < 0.001
Duration of injection drug use in years 13.0 (6.0, 19.0) 11.0 (6.0, 17.0) 12.0 (6.0, 18.0) 0.005
  1. IQR interquartile range, OMT opioid maintenance treatment