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Table 6 Chilla participation and Postpartum Depression at Six Months, Bachpan cohort, Pakistan

From: Maternal depression in rural Pakistan: the protective associations with cultural postpartum practices

  Model A: Full Sample - Unadjusted Model B: Full Sample - Adjusted Model C: Non-depressed Model D: Depressed
N = 729 N = 729 N = 379 N = 350
Panel A: SCID+ OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CI
 Chilla - Duration 0.87*** 0.80 0.94 0.92 0.84 1.01 0.87 0.75 1.01 0.95 0.85 1.06
 Chilla - No Chores 0.69 0.39 1.23 0.62 0.36 1.04 1.02 0.43 2.42 0.53* 0.28 0.99
 Chilla - Female Help 1.23 0.56 2.71          
 Chilla - Diet 0.72 0.32 1.62 0.93 0.44 1.98 1.09 0.29 4.07 0.72 0.31 1.67
 Chilla Satifaction 0.77 0.49 1.21 1.09 0.64 1.87 0.63 0.26 1.55 1.32 0.70 2.51
 MSPSS     0.74** 0.60 0.91 0.72* 0.53 0.97 0.77** 0.63 0.95
 SCID Baseline     2.42*** 1.61 3.62 1.02 0.94 1.11 1.03 0.97 1.09
 Maternal Age     1.04 0.99 1.09       
 Maternal Education     0.84* 0.73 0.97 0.88 0.69 1.11 0.93 0.77 1.12
 Parity     1.12 0.61 2.06 1.29 0.61 2.71 1.27 0.66 2.44
 SES     0.90 0.73 1.10 0.95 0.72 1.25 0.83 0.68 1.02
 Mother-in-law     1.35 0.81 2.25 1.68 0.80 3.55 1.10 0.64 1.89
 People in Room     1.02 0.93 1.11 1.12 0.98 1.28 0.93 0.79 1.08
 Study Arm     0.92 0.61 1.39 0.91 0.48 1.73 0.87 0.55 1.40
 Intercept 0.98 0.38 2.49 0.82 0.09 7.70 0.92 0.05 17.88 3.08 0.35 27.02
Panel B: PHQ-9++ Coefficient CI Coefficient CI Coefficient CI Coefficient CI
 Chilla - Duration −0.22 − 0.45 0.01 − 0.04 − 0.27 0.18 − 0.02 − 0.22 0.18 − 0.06 − 0.34 0.21
 Chilla - No Chores − 0.56 −2.29 1.18 − 0.59 −2.05 0.87 0.47 − 0.69 1.64 −1.95* −3.57 − 0.34
 Chilla - Female Help 1.52 − 0.46 3.49          
 Chilla - Diet −2.48** −4.40 −0.56 − 1.49** − 2.63 − 0.34 − 1.97* −3.75 − 0.19 −0.71 − 2.88 1.46
 Chilla Satifaction −0.61 − 2.02 0.79 0.13 − 1.30 1.55 −0.06 − 1.42 1.31 0.25 − 1.32 1.83
 MSPSS     −0.69*** −1.01 −0.37 − 0.54** −0.97 − 0.12 −0.80*** −1.31 − 0.29
 PHQ-9 Baseline     0.24*** 0.18 0.30 0.28*** 0.19 0.38 0.20*** 0.08 0.32
 Maternal Age     0.05 −0.03 0.13 0.05 − 0.05 0.15 0.06 −0.08 0.20
 Maternal Education     −0.17 −0.42 0.08 −0.20 − 0.50 0.10 − 0.30 −0.75 0.16
 Parity     0.12 −0.54 0.78 0.19 −0.71 1.09 0.10 −1.45 1.64
 SES     0.03 −0.33 0.38 0.12 −0.24 0.47 −0.06 −0.55 0.44
 Mother-in-law     0.35 −0.32 1.01 0.32 −0.61 1.24 0.38 −0.95 1.71
 People in Room     0.07 −0.10 0.24 −0.02 − 0.23 0.20 0.19 −0.17 0.54
 Study Arm     −0.78* −1.40 −0.15 − 0.91* −1.70 −0.13 − 0.76 − 1.92 0.39
 Intercept 6.88 4.85 8.91 6.65 3.40 9.89 5.40 1.34 9.46 7.91 2.27 13.54
  1. *p < .05, ** < .01, ***p < .001; Abbreviations: Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Socioeconomic Status (SES), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)