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Table 3 Chilla Participation and Postpartum Depression at Six Months, Bachpan cohort, Pakistan†

From: Maternal depression in rural Pakistan: the protective associations with cultural postpartum practices

 Model A: Full Sample - UnadjustedModel B: Full Sample - MSPSS ExcludedModel C: Full Sample - AdjustedModel D: Non-DepressedModel E: Depressed
N = 823N = 823N = 823N = 418N = 405
Panel A: SCID+
 ORCIORCIORCIORCIORCI
 Chilla (yes)0.400.230.710.53*0.330.860.560.311.030.44*0.200.970.730.391.34
 MSPSS      0.72***0.610.850.66**0.510.860.78*0.650.93
 SCID (Baseline)   2.47***1.753.492.30***1.623.26      
 Maternal Age   1.010.971.061.020.981.070.980.921.051.020.971.07
 Maternal Education   0.83**0.720.940.81**0.700.940.81*0.661.000.880.741.04
 Parity   1.200.781.841.110.641.921.370.712.641.220.682.18
 SES   0.880.761.020.910.751.111.010.791.280.840.701.01
 Mother-in-law   1.150.791.691.260.841.881.460.762.801.080.661.76
 People in Room   1.000.911.101.010.911.121.090.961.230.920.801.06
 Study Arm   0.850.591.230.890.601.330.940.541.610.850.561.29
 Intercept0.630.361.120.420.121.441.320.237.633.930.4038.442.840.5115.86
Panel B: PHQ-9++
 CoefficientCICoefficientCICoefficientCICoefficientCICoefficientCI
 Chilla (yes)−2.51−4.20−0.82−2.03***−3.10−0.96−1.54*−2.94−0.14−0.66−1.980.67−2.05*−3.81−0.49
 MSPSS      −0.85***−1.16− 0.55− 0.65**− 1.06− 0.24− 0.93***− 1.38− 0.46
 PHQ-9 (Baseline)   0.28***0.220.330.25***0.190.300.27***0.170.360.21***0.100.33
 Maternal Age   0.04−0.040.130.04− 0.040.120.02−0.080.120.04−0.090.19
 Maternal Education   −0.34−0.60− 0.07−0.22− 0.490.05− 0.23− 0.510.06−0.37− 0.810.07
 Parity   0.09−0.760.930.12−0.550.780.21−0.681.100.20−1.341.00
 SES   −0.11−0.400.190.01−0.360.370.11−0.230.45−0.12−0.600.35
 Mother-in-law   0.24−0.551.020.26−0.460.980.03−0.850.910.36−0.563.53
 People in Room   0.04***−0.160.250.05−0.130.23−0.05−0.270.170.11−0.220.48
 sStudy Arm   −0.74−1.44−0.04− 0.70−1.37−0.04− 0.76− 1.520.00− 0.75−1.880.31
 Intercept6.404.718.084.02*1.456.597.344.2410.446.132.679.588.984.5214.00
  1. † Models A-C used sampling weights and all models accounted for clustering due to the study design; *p < .05, ** < .01, ***p < .001; + Panel A used multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression with random effects to account for clustering; ++ Panel B used generalized linear mixed models with random effects to account for clustering; Abbreviations: Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Socioeconomic Status (SES), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)