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Table 2 Background Characteristics by Chilla Participation, Bachpan cohort, Pakistan*

From: Maternal depression in rural Pakistan: the protective associations with cultural postpartum practices

 Chilla ParticipationNo Chilla ParticipationTest of Difference
N = 729N = 94T-TestChi-Squared
Mean or NSD or %Mean or NSD or %
Demographic Characteristics
 Maternal Age26.684.3826.194.79−1.00 
Maternal Education     15.46**
 None9613.171515.96  
 Primary (1–5)13017.832930.85  
 Middle (6–8)13618.662122.34  
 Secondary (9, 10)19526.751414.89  
 Higher Secondary (11, 12)7610.4388.51  
 Tertiary (> 12)9613.1777.45  
Parity     4.93*
 First Pregnancy22030.181819.15  
 One or more children50969.827680.85  
SES Quintiles     17.61***
 Lowest12517.152829.79  
 Lower Middle13818.932526.60  
 Middle15220.851920.21  
 Upper Middle15521.261010.64  
 Highest15921.811212.77  
Mother-in-law     1.73
 Yes49968.455861.70  
 People in Room2.361.762.451.480.45 
 MSPSS (Three months)4.571.273.821.39−5.31*** 
Depression Characteristics
 SCID (Baseline)35048.015558.51 3.67
 PHQ-9 (Baseline)8.566.6210.056.962.04* 
  1. *p < .05, ** < .01, ***p < .00; Abbreviations: Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Socioeconomic Status (SES); Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)