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Table 4 Compliance by neighborhood characteristics (Minneapolis only)

From: Store and neighborhood differences in retailer compliance with a local staple foods ordinance

Compliance OutcomeNeighborhood CharacteristicPre-policy (2014) Mean (SE)Implementation only (2015) Mean (SE)Early initiation of enforcement (2016) Mean (SE)Continued monitoring (2017) Mean (SE)Overall Effect (time-by-characteristic) p (df = 3)
Met at least 8 of 10 ordinance standards (% of stores)Lower SES26.9 (8.7)48.2 (9.6)42.3 (9.7)44.0 (9.9)0.23
Higher SES23.5 (5.9)37.3 (6.8)25.5 (6.1)54.4 (7.3) 
Low-income/low-access26.1 (9.2)59.1 (10.5)35.0 (10.7)47.1 (12.1)0.15
Not low-income/low-access24.1 (5.8)33.9 (6.3)29.8 (6.1)51.9 (6.8) 
10 point scale (0–10; 1 point for each category where standard met)Lower SES5.9 (0.5)6.9 (0.5)6.8 (0.4)6.7 (0.4)0.12
Higher SES5.5 (0.4)6.3 (0.3)6.5 (0.3)7.4 (0.3) 
Low-income/low-access5.4 (0.6)7.4 (0.5)6.6 (0.6)7.2 (0.5)0.002
Not low-income/low-access5.7 (0.3)6.1 (0.3)6.6 (0.3)7.2 (0.3) 
p-net 0.0010.650.70 
Any food in each of 10 categories (% of stores)Lower SES30.8 (9.1)44.4 (9.6)57.7 (9.7)72.0 (9.0)0.82
Higher SES25.5 (6.1)35.3 (6.7)47.1 (7.0)76.1 (6.3) 
Low-income/low-access30.4 (9.6)45.5 (10.6)40.0 (11.0)82.4 (9.2)0.05
Not low-income/low-access25.9 (6.0)35.7 (6.4)54.4 (6.6)72.2 (6.1) 
p-net 0.730.090.65 
  1. Bolded entries: p < 0.05; Low SES: > 50% of residents at 185% of poverty; High SES: ≤50% of residents at 185% of poverty; All models adjusted for repeated measures over time; p-net values refer to changes in time-by-characteristic effect from pre-policy to implementation only, from pre-policy to early initiation of enforcement, from pre-policy to continued monitoring respectively
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