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Table 2 Association between socio-demographic factors and full immunisation status (assessed at 12–23 months) in Nigeria, multivariable logistic regression analysis (pooled DHS data)

From: The role of place of residency in childhood immunisation coverage in Nigeria: analysis of data from three DHS rounds 2003–2013

VariableModel 0Model 1Model 2Model 3
Adjusted Odds ratio 95% Confidence intervalP valueAdjusted Odds ratio 95% Confidence intervalP valueAdjusted Odds ratio 95% Confidence intervalP valueAdjusted Odds ratio 95% Confidence intervalP value
Place of Residence
 Rural1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
 Formal6.37 (4.63,8.78)0.0012.35 (1.85,2.97)0.0011.80 (1.41,2.28)0.0011.69 (0.89,3.22)0.108
 Slum5.13 (3.81,6.91)0.0011.93 (1.54,2.42)0.0011.76 (1.38,2.25)0.0011.45 (0.44,4.78)0.541
DHS
 20031.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
 20082.01 (1.46,2.77)0.0012.99 (2.14,4.17)0.0012.77 (1.84,4.16)0.0013.27 (2.12,5.03)0.001
 20133.08 (2.21,4.29)0.0014.12 (2.92,5.82)0.0013.84 (2.53,5.83)0.0014.51 (2.90,7.02)0.001
CHILD LEVEL FACTORS
 Birth order
  > =6  1.00 1.00 1.00 
 1  1.60 (1.27,2.01)0.0011.82 (1.30,2.55)0.0011.69 (1.19,2.40)0.004
 2–3  1.52 (1.23,1.87)0.0011.47(1.11,1.94)0.0071.39 (1.04,1.86)0.028
 4–5  1.24 (1.00,1.54)0.0531.19 (0.92,1.54)0.1771.14 (0.87,1.48)0.342
Place of delivery
 Home  1.00 1.00 1.00 
 Health facility  3.75 (3.00,4.69)0.0012.07 (1.69,2.54)0.0011.13 (0.73,1.73)0.591
Antenatal attendance
 No  1.00 1.00 1.00 
 Yes  11.37(8.09,15.99)0.0017.44 (5.31,10.42)0.0018.45 (5.21,13.69)0.001
 Don’t know  7.66(5.32,11.03)0.0014.81 (3.30,7.00)0.0016.45 (2.82,14.72)0.001
HOUSEHOLD LEVEL FACTORS
Maternal education level
 No education    1.00 1.00 
 Primary    2.14 (1.66,2.76)0.0011.77 (1.29,2.44)0.001
 Secondary    3.43 (2.57,4.58)0.0012.67 (1.64,4.36)0.001
 Higher    5.08 (3.36,7.68)0.0013.92 (1.79,8.59)0.001
Sex of Household head
 Male    1.00 1.00 
 Female    1.16(0.91,1.48)0.2421.10(0.85,1.41)0.502
 Religion        
 Islam    1.00 1.00 
 Christian    3.22 (2.50,4.17)0.0012.36 (1.81,3.08)0.001
 Traditionalist/ others    0.84 (0.51,1.38)0.4890.84 (0.50,1.40)0.499
Mother employment status
 No    1.00 1.00 
 Yes    1.22 (0.93,1.60)0.1541.15 (0.87,1.52)0.327
Maternal age at the child’s birth
 14–19    1.00 1.00 
 20–29    2.22(1.62,3.04)0.0012.35 (1.61,3.45)0.001
 30–39    2.85(1.95,4.16)0.0013.33(1.84,6.02)0.001
 40–49    3.33(1.98,5.60)0.0014.41(1.86,10.44)0.001
Current marital status
 Never married    1.00 1.00 
 Married/partner    0.69(0.43,1.12)0.1360.77(0.47,1.27)0.304
 No longer together    0.77(0.40,1.48)0.4380.93(0.47,1.83)0.826
Decision maker on spending of mothers income
 No income mother /missing    1.00 1.00 
 Mother alone    1.12 (0.86,1.47)0.3941.17 (0.88,1.55)0.279
 mother& spouse    1.25 (0.92,1.70)0.1631.19 (0.86,1.63)0.301
 spouse alone    0.77 (0.53,1.12)0.1740.76(0.51,1.12)0.162
Media exposure
 No    1.00 1.00 
 Yes    1.89 (1.51,2.36)0.0011.91 (1.50,2.41)0.001
Household wealth
 Poor    1.00 1.00 
 Moderate    1.14 (0.96,1.35)0.1291.30 (0.91,1.85)0.155
 Rich    1.31 (0.93,1.85)0.1261.69 (0.86,3.32)0.126
COMMUNITY LEVEL FACTORS
 Region
 Northcentral      1.00 
 Northeast      0.56 (0.40,0.78)0.001
 Northwest      0.30 (0.21,0.44)0.001
 Southeast      1.10 (0.78,1.55)0.589
 Southsouth      1.54 (1.11,2.14)0.010
Southwest      0.90 (0.65,1.24)0.523
Distance to nearest Health Facility
Big problem No/Not a big problem
      1.00
1.69 (1.37,2.09)
0.001
Interactions with place of residence Maternal Education      1.03(0.91,1.17)0.643
Household wealth      0.90 (0.74,1.09)0.289
ANC attendance      0.89 (0.69,1.13)0.331
Place of delivery      1.38 (1.08,1.76)0.010
Mothers birth age      0.92 (0.79,1.06)0.238
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