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Table 5 Changes in beverage expenditure as a proportion of the food budget in Tonga from 2009 to 2015/16

From: Equity of expenditure changes associated with a sweetened-beverage tax in Tonga: repeated cross-sectional household surveys

Characteristic   Beverage expenditures as a proportion of food and non-alcoholic beverages expenditure (%)
2009 2015/16 Absolute difference Relative change (%) Diff. p-value
Soft drinks (taxed in 2013) Total All 1.39 (1.24 to 1.55) 1.32 (1.07 to 1.58) −0.07 (− 0.37 to 0.22) −5.2 (− 25.7 to 16.5) 0.633
Age Adults only 1.86 (1.43 to 2.29) 1.58 (0.89 to 2.27) −0.28 (− 1.10 to 0.53) −15.2 (− 55.1 to 29.5) 0.497
Adults and children 1.23 (1.10 to 1.36) 1.22 (1.02 to 1.42) −0.01 (− 0.24 to 0.23) −0.6 (− 19.4 to 19.3) 0.953
  p-value    0.525   
Income tertile Lowest 1.09 (0.88 to 1.29) 0.80 (0.60 to 0.99) −0.29 (− 0.57 to − 0.01) − 26.7 (− 47.8 to − 3.0) 0.041
Middle 1.27 (1.05 to 1.49) 1.35 (1.02 to 1.67) 0.08 (− 0.31 to 0.47) 6.4 (−23.7 to 39.8) 0.687
Highest 1.83 (1.49 to 2.17) 1.71 (1.12 to 2.30) −0.12 (− 0.80 to 0.56) −6.6 (− 41.7 to 31.8) 0.727
  p-value    0.652   
Island Outer islands 0.61 (0.49 to 0.72) 0.46 (0.35 to 0.57) −0.14 (− 0.30 to 0.01) − 23.9 (− 45.7 to 0.7) 0.073
Tongatapu (main island) 1.75 (1.53 to 1.97) 1.66 (1.31 to 2.01) −0.09 (− 0.50 to 0.33) −5.1 (− 27.8 to 19.1) 0.676
  p-value    0.804   
Milk Total All 0.87 (0.77 to 0.97) 1.68 (1.44 to 1.93) 0.82 (0.55 to 1.08) 94.2 (59.4 to 131.7) < 0.001
Age Adults only 0.81 (0.61 to 1.00) 2.02 (1.45 to 2.59) 1.21 (0.61 to 1.81) 150.2 (64.1 to 251.4) < 0.001
Adults and children 0.89 (0.77 to 1.01) 1.55 (1.33 to 1.78) 0.66 (0.41 to 0.92) 74.7 (41.6 to 111.2) < 0.001
  p-value    0.099   
Income tertile Lowest 0.67 (0.51 to 0.82) 1.09 (0.85 to 1.33) 0.42 (0.14 to 0.71) 63.4 (14.8 to 121.2) 0.004
Middle 0.85 (0.68 to 1.03) 1.58 (1.25 to 1.91) 0.73 (0.35 to 1.10) 85.1 (33.8 to 144.7) < 0.001
Highest 1.08 (0.89 to 1.26) 2.24 (1.73 to 2.74) 1.16 (0.62 to 1.70) 107.8 (51.3 to 170.9) < 0.001
  p-value    0.018   
Island Outer islands 0.41 (0.30 to 0.53) 0.83 (0.57 to 1.09) 0.42 (0.14 to 0.70) 100.8 (24.4 to 193.5) 0.004
Tongatapu (main island) 1.07 (0.93 to 1.21) 2.02 (1.70 to 2.34) 0.95 (0.60 to 1.30) 88.6 (51.5 to 128.7) < 0.001
  p-value    0.020   
Bottled water Total All 0.21 (0.14 to 0.28) 1.31 (0.78 to 1.85) 1.11 (0.56 to 1.65) 532.5 (230.7 to 906.0) < 0.001
Age Adults only 0.25 (0.13 to 0.38) 1.92 (0.45 to 3.39) 1.66 (0.19 to 3.14) 653 (49 to 1454) 0.027
Adults and children 0.19 (0.12 to 0.26) 1.08 (0.83 to 1.33) 0.89 (0.62 to 1.15) 464 (249 to 760) < 0.001
  p-value    0.309   
Income tertile Lowest 0.09 (0.05 to 0.14) 0.73 (0.50 to 0.95) 0.63 (0.40 to 0.86) 665 (298 to 1218) < 0.001
Middle 0.16 (0.06 to 0.26) 0.96 (0.70 to 1.22) 0.80 (0.52 to 1.08) 507 (159 to 1155) < 0.001
Highest 0.37 (0.19 to 0.55) 2.10 (0.87 to 3.33) 1.73 (0.49 to 2.97) 468 (91 to 997) 0.006
p-value    0.087   
Island Outer islands 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) 0.44 (0.31 to 0.56) 0.42 (0.30 to 0.55) 2811 (1188 to 5724) < 0.001
Tongatapu (main island) 0.29 (0.20 to 0.39) 1.66 (0.92 to 2.40) 1.37 (0.62 to 2.12) 464 (177 to 817) < 0.001
  p-value    0.015   
  1. Note: See the footnote to Table 3