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Table 4 Changes in per capita beverage expenditure in Tonga from 2009 to 2015/16

From: Equity of expenditure changes associated with a sweetened-beverage tax in Tonga: repeated cross-sectional household surveys

Characteristic   Mean expenditure (2015/2016 T$/person/year)
2009 2015/16 Absolute difference Relative change (%) Diff. p-value
Soft drinks (taxed in 2013) Total All 37.9 (31.1 to 44.7) 29.6 (22.5 to 36.8) −8.2 (−18.1 to 1.6) −21.8 (− 44.1 to 3.2) 0.102
Age Adults only 67.1 (43.9 to 90.3) 47.5 (26.2 to 68.8) −19.7 (−51.2 to 11.8) −29.3 (− 65.7 to 16.3) 0.221
Adults and children 27.5 (24.0 to 31.0) 22.7 (18.4 to 26.9) −4.8 (−10.4 to 0.7) −17.6 (−35.7 to 1.9) 0.087
  p-value    0.364   
Income tertile Lowest 18.5 (14.5 to 22.5) 11.6 (7.1 to 16.1) −6.9 (−12.9 to − 0.9) −37.3 (− 63.6 to −7.9) 0.024
Middle 27.1 (23.0 to 31.2) 28.1 (17.0 to 39.2) 1.0 (−10.8 to 12.8) 3.6 (−39.0 to 48.8) 0.870
Highest 68.0 (49.0 to 87.0) 45.2 (30.9 to 59.5) −22.8 (−46.6 to 1.0) −33.6 (−59.4 to − 2.2) 0.060
  p-value    0.203   
Island Outer islands 16.4 (12.7 to 20.1) 12.5 (8.8 to 16.2) −3.9 (−9.2 to 1.4) −23.8 (−50.6 to 7.1) 0.147
Tongatapu (main island) 47.6 (37.8 to 57.3) 36.4 (26.5 to 46.3) −11.2 (−25.0 to 2.7) −23.5 (−48.0 to 4.4) 0.114
  p-value    0.337   
Milk Total All 22.7 (19.7 to 25.8) 35.4 (28.7 to 42.2) 12.7 (5.2 to 20.1) 55.7 (20.6 to 93.6) 0.001
Age Adults only 32.4 (24.4 to 40.3) 56.4 (39.2 to 73.5) 24.0 (5.1 to 42.9) 74.0 (10.7 to 148.4) 0.013
Adults and children 19.3 (16.4 to 22.2) 27.2 (22.4 to 32.0) 7.9 (2.3 to 13.5) 40.8 (9.8 to 75.1) 0.006
  p-value    0.110   
Income tertile Lowest 10.8 (8.1 to 13.5) 13.9 (10.2 to 17.5) 3.0 (−1.5 to 7.6) 28.2 (− 15.3 to 80.5) 0.193
Middle 17.5 (14.1 to 21.0) 28.1 (21.5 to 34.6) 10.5 (3.1 to 18.0) 59.9 (13.7 to 112.8) 0.006
Highest 39.9 (32.2 to 47.5) 59.0 (43.2 to 74.8) 19.2 (1.6 to 36.7) 48.1 (1.8 to 100.0) 0.032
  p-value    0.082   
Island Outer islands 12.7 (8.6 to 16.8) 16.9 (12.6 to 21.2) 4.1 (−1.8 to 10.1) 32.5 (− 16.3 to 96.0) 0.171
Tongatapu (main island) 27.3 (23.2 to 31.3) 42.7 (33.6 to 51.8) 15.5 (5.5 to 25.4) 56.7 (17.6 to 99.4) 0.002
  p-value    0.056   
Bottled water Total All 6.0 (3.4 to 8.6) 26.6 (20.9 to 32.3) 20.5 (14.3 to 26.8) 341.1 (155.7 to 621.0) < 0.001
Age Adults only 12.3 (3.5 to 21.2) 42.8 (29.5 to 56.0) 30.4 (14.5 to 46.4) 247 (18 to 721) < 0.001
Adults and children 3.8 (2.7 to 4.8) 20.2 (15.5 to 25.0) 16.4 (11.6 to 21.3) 435 (257 to 658) < 0.001
  p-value    0.100   
Income tertile Lowest 4.7 (−1.6 to 11.1) 10.4 (6.8 to 14.1) 5.7 (−1.6 to 13.0) 121 (− 964 to 6401) 0.126
Middle 3.3 (1.4 to 5.3) 17.8 (12.4 to 23.2) 14.4 (8.7 to 20.2) 433 (134 to 963) < 0.001
Highest 10.0 (6.1 to 13.9) 47.3 (35.8 to 58.8) 37.3 (25.1 to 49.4) 373 (182 to 645) < 0.001
p-value    < 0.001   
Island Outer islands 0.4 (0.2 to 0.6) 13.8 (8.9 to 18.8) 13.5 (8.5 to 18.5) 3678 (1530 to 7300) < 0.001
Tongatapu (main island) 8.6 (4.8 to 12.4) 31.6 (23.9 to 39.2) 23.0 (14.5 to 31.5) 269 (107 to 512) < 0.001
  p-value    0.059   
  1. Notes: The 2009 expenditure findings were increased to adjust for inflation between 2009 and 2015/16 (12.4% increase, using CPI data from the Department of Statistics). Household expenditure was then divided by the number of people in the household. See also the footnote to Table 3