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Table 5 Quality of caregiver-child interaction based on Indicator of Parent-Child Interaction tool (N=29)

From: Assessing the play and learning environments of children under two years in peri-urban Lima, Peru: a formative research study

IPCI construct and description Example from observation data IPCI scorea
(out of a maximum of 3)
(mean, range)
Facilitating behaviors
Conveys acceptance and warmth
Displaying warmth through verbal (i.e., making positive comments to child) and nonverbal (i.e., gentle, affectionate touch) signals
Child stacks two blocks together and caregiver responds, “Great job! Bravo!” 1.8 (0, 3)
Uses descriptive language
Describing activities, objects, and/or child’s behaviors or feelings with multiple-word sentences
Caregiver asks child, “Where is your shoe?”; Caregiver says “Let’s go to the store” 1.5 (0, 3)
Follows child’s lead
Noticing what interests the child and imitating, joining, turn-taking, or commenting appropriately on it
Child picks up ball and throws it to caregiver, and caregiver throws it back 1.4 (0, 3)
Maintains/extends child’s focus
Introducing activities or materials, or using words/gestures in a novel way to engage child that demonstrates consideration to child’s interests
Child is looking at book and caregiver begins pointing out the animals on each page 0.6 (0, 2)
Interrupting behaviors
Uses restrictions/ intrusions
Making short, restrictive statements, or taking things away or controlling child’s movement unnecessarily
Child reaches for cell phone and caregiver says “No!” sharply 0.9 (0, 3)
Uses interruptions with an explanation
Interrupting a child’s behavior while offering a verbal explanation or learning objective
Child throws a toy and caregiver says calmly, “Don’t throw that, you could hurt someone” 0.5 (0, 2)
  1. aFrequency of each construct within participants’ 30-min video observations, coded based on the Indicator of Parent-Child Interaction (IPCI) tool’s scoring system (0-Never; 1-Rarely/mild; 2-Sometimes/inconsistent; 3-Often/consistently)