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Table 1 The distribution of maternal and fetus characteristics among five ethnic groups: Yunnan, China, 2010-2018

From: Ethnic disparities in stillbirth risk in Yunnan, China: a prospective cohort study, 2010-2018

  Dai Han Hani Miao Yi Total P Value
Number 8,733 123,600 5,292 5,639 34,256 177,520  
Sociodemographic characteristics, No. (%)
Education level        < 0.001
  N-Miss 20 1,591 64 30 246 1,951  
  Low 2,767 (31.8) 1,7696 (14.5) 1,733 (33.1) 2,990 (53.3) 9,255 (27.2) 34,441 (19.6)  
  Middle 4,636 (53.2) 6,9643 (57.1) 2,514 (48.1) 2,203 (39.3) 18,391 (54.1) 97,387 (55.5)  
  High 1,310 (15.0) 3,4670 (28.4) 981 (18.8) 416 (7.4) 6,364 (18.7) 43,741 (24.9)  
Parity        < 0.001
  N-Miss 17 375 21 11 90 514  
  0 2,553 (29.3) 51,873 (42.1) 1,495 (28.4) 1,990 (35.4) 11,751 (34.4) 69,662 (39.4)  
  1 3,752 (43.0) 48,116 (39.0) 1,896 (36.0) 2,297 (40.8) 13,417 (39.3) 69,478 (39.3)  
  >1 2,411 (27.7) 23,236 (18.9) 1,880 (35.7) 1,341 (23.8) 8,998 (26.3) 37,866 (21.4)  
Age        < 0.001
  N-Miss 26 146 11 32 25 240  
  <20 334 (3.8) 3,236 (2.6) 231 (4.4) 880 (15.7) 1,134 (3.3) 5,815 (3.3)  
  20-35 7,979 (91.6) 112,455 (91.1) 4,663 (88.3) 4,393 (78.3) 31,259 (91.3) 160,749 (90.7)  
  ≥35 394 (4.5) 7,763 (6.3) 387 (7.3) 334 (6.0) 1,838 (5.4) 10,716 (6.0)  
Birth order        < 0.001
  N-miss 17 375 21 11 90 514  
  1 3,681 (42.2) 62,506 (50.7) 2,176 (41.3) 2,307 (41.0) 15,509 (45.4) 86,179 (48.7)  
  2 4,901 (56.2) 59,077 (47.9) 2,897 (55.0) 3,074 (54.6) 18,080 (52.9) 88,029 (49.7)  
  >3 134 (1.5) 1,642 (1.3) 198 (3.8) 247 (4.4) 577 (1.7) 2,798 (1.6)  
Work        < 0.001
  N-Miss 37 1,226 58 63 227 1,611  
  Farmer 8,390 (96.5) 111,618 (91.2) 4,965 (94.9) 5,459 (97.9) 32,605 (95.8) 163,037 (92.7)  
  Non-farmer 306 (3.5) 10,756 (8.8) 269 (5.1) 117 (2.1) 1,424 (4.2) 12,872 (7.3)  
BMI (kg/m2)        < 0.001
  N-Miss 3 232 6 4 38 283  
  Underweight 1,553 (17.8) 16,969 (13.8) 632 (12.0) 429 (7.6) 4,174 (12.2) 23,757 (13.4)  
  Normal weight 6,145 (70.4) 93,793 (76.0) 3,946 (74.7) 4,678 (83.0) 26,382 (77.1) 134,944 (76.1)  
  Overweight 877 (10.0) 11,179 (9.1) 597 (11.3) 471 (8.4) 3,176 (9.3) 16,300 (9.2)  
  Obese 155(1.8) 1,427 (1.2) 111 (2.1) 57 (1.0) 486 (1.4) 2,236 (1.3)  
Height (cm)
 N-miss 3 232 6 4 38 283  
 <150 1,397 (16.0) 10,827 (8.8) 917 (17.3) 1,998 (35.5) 4,181 (12.2) 19,320 (10.9)  
 ≥150 7,333 (84.0) 112,541 (91.2) 4,369 (82.7) 3,637 (64.5) 30,037 (87.8) 157,917 (89.1)  
Maternal disease a        < 0.001
 N-Miss 71 981 64 31 286 1,433  
 Yes 261 (3.0) 1,579 (1.3) 101 (1.9) 42 (0.7) 388 (1.1) 2,371 (1.3)  
Economic stress        < 0.001
 N-Miss 51 700 39 31 187 1,008  
 Never 6,705 (77.2) 91,354 (74.3) 3,249 (61.9) 4,546 (81.1) 24,572 (72.1) 130,426 (73.9)  
 Slightly 1,157 (13.3) 18,704 (15.2) 1,023 (19.5) 606 (10.8) 5,317 (15.6) 26,807 (15.2)  
 Considerable 820 (9.4) 12,842 (10.4) 981 (18.7) 456 (8.1) 4,180 (12.3) 19,279 (10.9)  
Past obstetric history, No. (%)
Induced abortion        < 0.001
  Yes 2,845 (32.6) 26,052 (21.1) 1,998 (37.8) 1,239 (22.0) 10,137 (29.6) 42,271 (23.8)  
  Missing 2,537 (29.1) 45,518 (36.8) 1,433 (27.1) 1,971 (35.0) 10,998 (32.1) 62,457 (35.2)  
Natural abortion        < 0.001
  Yes 356 (4.1) 4,139 (3.3) 302 (5.7) 195 (3.5) 1,298 (3.8) 6,290 (3.5)  
  Missing 2,537 (29.1) 45,520 (36.8) 1,433 (27.1) 1,971 (35.0) 10,998 (32.1) 62,459 (35.2)  
Stillbirth        < 0.001
  Yes 68 (0.8) 1,024 (0.8) 60 (1.1) 43 (0.8) 309 (0.9) 1,504 (0.8)  
  Missing 2,537 (29.1) 45,520 (36.8) 1,433 (27.1) 1,971 (35.0) 10,998 (32.1) 62,459 (35.2)  
Maternal substance use, No. (%)
Folate use        < 0.001
  N-Miss 14 784 31 51 192 1,072  
  Unused 420 (4.8) 5,092 (4.1) 464 (8.8) 351 (6.3) 1591 (4.7) 7,918 (4.5)  
  Irregular Used 475 (5.5) 7,831 (6.4) 411 (7.8) 355 (6.4) 3,092 (9.1) 12,164 (6.9)  
  Regular Used 7,824 (89.7) 109,893 (89.5) 4,386 (83.4) 4,882 (87.3) 29,381 (86.3) 156,366 (88.6)  
Smoking status        < 0.001
  N-Miss 69 953 48 39 247 1,356  
  Smoke free 7,509 (86.7) 103,543 (84.4) 4,359 (83.1) 5,119 (91.4) 29,364 (86.3) 149,894 (85.1)  
  Passive smoking (only) 1,130 (13.0) 18,635 (15.2) 856 (16.3) 473 (8.4) 4,570 (13.4) 25,664 (14.6)  
  Smoker 25 (0.3) 469 (0.4) 29 (0.6) 8 (0.1) 75 (0.2) 606 (0.3)  
IUD use        < 0.001
  N-Miss 38 822 31 34 185 1,110  
  Ever 2,450 (28.2) 26,417 (21.5) 1,164 (22.1) 1,010 (18.0) 8,161 (24.0) 39,202 (22.2)  
Current pregnancy outcomes, No. (%)
Fetus sex        0.007
  N-miss 23 259 7 9 87 385  
  Female 4,216 (48.4) 58,905 (47.8) 2,464 (46.6) 2,596 (46.1) 16,469 (48.2) 84,650 (47.8)  
  Male 4,463 (51.2) 63,924 (51.8) 2,807 (53.1) 3,002 (53.3) 17,577 (51.4) 91,773 (51.8)  
  Unknown b 31 (0.4) 512 (0.4) 14 (0.3) 32 (0.6) 123 (0.4) 712 (0.4)  
Preterm births c 667 (7.6) 6,235 (5.0) 351 (6.6) 364 (6.5) 1,607 (4.7) 9,224 (5.2) < 0.001
Congenital anomalies        0.454
 N-Miss 23 261 7 9 87 387  
 Yes 13 (0.1) 159 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 5 (0.1) 31 (0.1) 215 (0.1)  
Stillbirth 90 (1.0) 705 (0.6) 37 (0.7) 31 (0.5) 223 (0.7) 1,086 (0.6) < 0.001
 Female stillbirth 25 (0.3) 218 (0.2) 13 (0.2) 12 (0.2) 67 (0.2) 335 (0.2)  
 Male stillbirth 33 (0.4) 261 (0.2) 13 (0.2) 9 (0.2) 90 (0.3) 406 (0.2)  
 Sex-unknown b stillbirth 31 (0.4) 224 (0.2) 11 (0.2) 10 (0.2) 64 (0.2) 340 (0.2)  
 Sex-missing stillbirth 1 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 5 (0.0)  
  1. Note. ‘N-Miss’ refer to the number of missing data. ‘Missing’ refer to missing value in categorical variables coded as a separate category.
  2. a Maternal disease including hypertension, thyroid disease, syphilis and hepatitis B
  3. b hermaphroditism or difficult to judge due to some birth defects.
  4. c Gestation age <37 weeks